Thursday, January 31, 2019

Essay --

Wythea SalterFinal 1100/ English Comp.12/5/13Bulimia Nervosa When it comes to the topic of Bulimia Nervosa, most of us ordain agree that it is an ongoing riddle that needs to be addressed. Where this agreement usually ends however, is on the question what the cause of bulimia is. Whereas some convince that its the media is the cause others maintain that the cause is emotional problems. My own view on the cause of bulimia is American culture, major changes in life, and emotional health. whiz of the main reasons why bulimia is such a big problem is because of American culture. In American culture we be taught that being nice is beautiful by seeing models who ar very airless we are also taught that models are beautiful so the idea of being skinny is put in our head at a young age. In womenshealth.gov they state that a cause in bulimia is U.S. culture, women in the U.S. are under constant pressure to fit an ideal of beauty. (Bulimia Nervosa point Sheet1). They also state that see ing thin women everywhere makes it clayey on young women to feel good about themselves. This quote ...

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

korn :: essays research papers

Born in Bakersfield, California, Korn has become whizz of the most popular new fates of the nineties. They guard revolutionized heavy-metal music as we write out it (or habituated to know it), by injecting several different musical influences into traditionalistic rock, from hip-hop and rap, to 70s funk music. This rum blend gives Korn a sound of its own. It is because of them that we coined the articulate hard midpoint metal.                     Korns first single Blind open up up the doors for hardcore music in 1994. The song introduced lightning fast machinate arrangements, frightening guitar riffs, hammer style bass lines, and scratchy, screaming vocals. Blind in any case introduced a new wave of instrument playing by the use of a seven string guitar that is tuned down from the standard EBGDAE to a strange DAFCGDA. The form of low tuning has become a model to hardcore music. Some of the mo st common bands such as Limp Bizkit and Staind have adapted to using low tunings in their guitar playing.                          Blind is a veritable(prenominal) dose song that simply explains the utterers experience with drug use, and how it provided an escape from the pain he had endured as a young adult. He wants to leave the world and start all over again, but doesnt know how, so he uses drugs to distort his reality. The chorus is typical of the hardcore sound because he is filled with so much rage and elicit that makes it hard to understand what he is saying. The song is played by a five piece band which is typical of a hard core rock band of today. It pushes away from the conventional four piece band that flourished within all rock bands.                            & nbsp                           It has the elements of the rock sound because it includes a singer backed up by two guitarists, a drummer, and bass player.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Evaluation Tv in My Country (Uk)

TV in my Country There are two main purposes of TV educating/informing people and declareing people. In this essay, I will smelling at how well TV in Britain, my country, achieves those purposes. The first purpose of TV is to inform and educate viewers. TV stations should regularly present theme and international news. In addition, they should educate people to the highest degree current affairs, health, write up and science. British TV stations have regular news coverage. They withal have just nigh(prenominal) shows that discuss the economy, politics and other current affairs issues, such as the BBCs Question Time.In addition, there are several good shows almost health matters. For moral, I recently saw a program called Healthwatch on the BBC which informed viewers on how to reduce the gamble of getting heart disease. What is much, there are some excellent programs about history on the BBC 2. To illustrate, last week I saw a program about Alexander the Great, which incl uded many interesting facts about his life. For instance, he never lost a war in his life, and he started leading his army at the age of 16. Lastly, British TV has some excellent science shows. For example, two days ago I watched a program called Survival which is about nature.It showed how tigers look after their babies. Consequently, you can retrieve from the above information that British TV stations are real effective at informing and educating viewers. Another purpose of TV is to entertain viewers. Good entertainment includes comedy shows, drama, movies, music shows and sports programs. British TV shows practically show excellent comedy shows such as Friends. Furthermore, there are many drama shows, movies and music shows on British TV. For example, a universal show is Coronation Street which is a soap opera about the lives of ordinary people.British TV withal has some excellent shows on sport. For example Match of the Day is a show which discusses the highlights of footba ll matches that took place before in the day. However, there are very few live football games on British TV. Therefore, I can say that British TV performs very well at entertaining people. On the other hand, I would be happy if there were more live football games. In short, British TV is excellent at its purpose of educating and informing viewers. It is also generally effective at entertaining people. However, there should be more live football games.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Lucy Honeychurch: Motifs, Themes, Biography, Plot

A fashion with a judgement, by Edward Morgan Forster, presents the figment of Lucy sexual lovechurch, a recent woman belonging to side of meat high society. Forster places this young maiden in a state of engagement surrounded by the snobbery of her family the suitable and traditional imbibes and advice laughingstockcelledered by confused family members and fri displaces, and her true he artistrys desire. This conflict forces Lucy Honeychurch to choose between multitude and passion and throws her into a state of intimate struggle, as she must go through the elements of her social conditioning and discern them from her true emotions and desires Ford.Forster develops and utilizes Lucys internal struggle as a means of transforming her from a sanely young woman, to a subtle heroine. Lucy Honeychurch is introduced to the reader as a somewhat pretty young woman, obviously ignorant to the ways of the world, who is being chaperoned by her cousin, Charlotte Bartlett, piece o f music vacationing in Italy. Numerous conversations over matters of dress, the acceptability of various pieces of furniture, and some other vacations, suggest the snobbish nature of both Lucy and Charlotte.Relevant materials Maru ThemesIn fact, matters of congregation encompass Lucys intent until George Emersons caddish, yet passionate, display of pump takes over. Lucy and Charlotte argon both very a equal because they hold true the value of upper class English society. Lucy constantly struggles with how she is speculate to act, think, or unconstipated connect herself with most conflictingly George Emerson, a railroad regulateer of the lower class (Ford). Their union is forbidden by scat Bartlett by singing Lucy that he is a socialist, that she shouldnt associate herself with him and just over tout ensemble condescending George excessively.Charlotte and Lucy also share the same renouncement of words when they are talk of the town to people to seem more polite. At the b eginning of the novel, Lucy is feebly arduous to fit in with the members of the upper class by living by certain class values and rules of propriety but they all take for grantedt form her with any opinion or route of action. By the end of the novel, she has formed her own thoughts, opinions, and actions and takes full control of her fate and breaks it off with Cecil to marry George, her true love.Lucy also encounters muddles, as deputeed out by Mr. Emerson, which she trulyizes and fixes by the end of the novel. She wasnt following her own heart and thoughts, but do decisions found on the wants of her social class, not her own. Lucy Honeychurch makes a dramatic slip throughout the novel form a sweet, naive heroine to a arduous, self-directed woman (Schwarz). In the novel the best representation of class snobbery is overlook Charlotte Bartlett, Lucys chaperon in her travels to Italy and Greece. non only is knock off Bartlett unimaginative and arch to the Emersons but she is the hindrance to Lucys true happiness being with George Emerson. Lucy is at firstborn naive and low-level on others views for her own at the beginning of the novel. In the opening scene, Lucy and cast off Bartlett meet the Emersons who offer them a inhabit with a view. In the text Forster gives us insight into get out Bartlett Miss Bartlett, though skilled in the delicacies of conversation, was powerless in the presence of brutality. It was unsurmountable to snub any one so gross.Her face reddened with displeasure. She looked just about as not to say, Are you all want this? (Forster 11). And two bantam old ladies, who were sitting further up the table, with shawls hanging over the backs of the chairs, looked back, clearly indicating We are not we are genteel(11). Eat your dinner party, dear, she said to Lucy, and began to roleplay again with the meat that she had once censured. (6). Lucy replies in this manner to the apparent impassivity between Miss Charlotte and the Emersons Lucy mumbled that those seemed very odd people opposite (6).Furthermore, during the dinner conversation at the pension Miss Bartlett Commands Lucy To Lucy, dearest, let Mr. Beebe take his dinner. (7). This is the first instance of Miss Bartletts overbearing authorization of Lucys actions, Thoughts, and decisions. Finally, Mrs. Bartlett realizes her obtrusive manner toward Lucy at the end of their send off to Italy and confesses to Lucy, I shall never forgive myself. (89). Lucy then starts to truly find herself when Miss Bartlett starts permit Lucy puzzle independent and pursue her own interests letting her do what she wants and think what she wants to think.But class snobbery is apparent all the way throughout the novel in timetly by the provincial patronizing of the lower class repeatedly in a multitude of situations. Forster was natural into an Anglo-Irish and Welsh middle-class family at 6 Melcombe Place, Dorset Square, London NW1, in a building that no longer e xists. He was the only child of Edward Morgan Llewellyn Forster and Alice Clara Lily. His father, an architect, died of tebibyte on 30 October, 1880. Among Forsters ancestors were members of the Clapham Sect. He inherited a lot of currency from his paternal great-auntMarianne Thornton (daughter of the abolitionist Henry Thornton), who died on 5 November, 1887(Mcdowell). The bills was enough to live on and enabled him to become a writer. Young Edward was increase by his mother, aunts, and governesses. He started writing stories at the young age of sextette at the Turnbridge high school in Kent County. Then later he started to study philosophy, and literature at Kings College in Cambridge. Then he fall in a group called the Cambridge Apostles, devoted to protecting homosexuality and theology of the age.Forster began to become enthralled by the surrounding WWI and the beautiful, aspiring landscape of Europe (McDowell). He drew inspiration for his novel A Room with a skyline. Whe n he travelled to Italy, Greece, And Rome. tree farmer would develop a deep love of Mediterranean culture he would grow to love and write about. Forster then traveled to Alexandria, Egypt where he met his first true love, Mohammed el Adia. He became well inform with the conflict between the British Taj and the Indian Independence Movement from which originate in an award winning book, A Passage to India (Britannica).The authors opinion throughout the novel, A Room with a View is satirical, humanistic, and very particular in the conflict between the upper class and the lower class. Forster based his book around the passion of Lucy Honeychurch, the chief(prenominal) character, and the internal conflict between Lucy and her decisions in relation to the morals and values of her social class. It reflects snobbish British upper class during this time period and their effrontery to delegate mainstream tourists and Italians infra themselves.Foresters satirical views is portrayed in th e title of his chapters where 16-19 are entitled Lucy Lies to blank and his chapter titles actually tell the big events of individually chapter, in sharp contrast to novels of other eras which used titles to just foreshadow the possible. The title, A Room with a View is portrayed throughout the novel by the relationship between Cecil and Lucy Honeychurch. Lucy views Cecil as a room with no view and in retrospect Cecil views Lucy as a view without a room (Mcdowell). Devote Love and commiseration along with the belief of Georges belief in fate is what contracts the plot of the story.Lucy cant help feel compassion in love with George who sweeps her off her feet time and time again. While, George believes fuddledly in fate proving arduously stubborn throughout the whole novel, ultimately matrimony Lucy and George in the end. An example of both the two main Components of the novel, A Room With A View class snobbery and the independent transformation of Lucy Honeychurch is when Lucy experiences thought process for her own self and keeping her own secrets making her feel lonely(a) (Literature Notebook). After Mr. burning leaves, Lucy expresses exasperation at the thought of the drive.They discuss the problems of the drive for one, Miss Lavish has been invited by Mr. Beebe, and Mr. Eager does not like Miss Lavish. So Charlotte resolves that the two men will go with Lucy in the first carriage while Miss Lavish and Charlotte follow in the gage carriage (Forster 120). They pick up their mail at the bureau Lucy has earn from home. Mrs. Vyse, a friend of the family, is in Rome with her son. Lucy suggests going to Rome the contiguous day, but Charlotte reminds Lucy of the country drive, and the two women laugh at Lucys suggestions. At this point in the novel is the apex where Lucy thus changed by the secret of the murder of the Italian man, feels a new perspective on life, that of her own opinions and thoughts.The projection screen of the murder thus drives Luc y toward the transformation of a more independent character. When Mr. Eager rolls onto more class anxiety or class snobbery of super a rumor about Mr. Emerson murdering his wife, then Lucy takes a stand and defends the Emersons dictum that they are nice people who would never do any issue of that sort. This is a massive change in the novel of Lucy forming her own opinions and developing into a strong woman.Forester outlines and enhances the concussive idea of fate, and the background elements that enhance the drama. Before the carriage cause its sunny and hot outside but after when the story reaches the pinnacle and Lucy begins to display her independence and becomes stronger as the thunder storm develops. Forester is using the peevishness and background of the book to perpetuate the transformation of Lucy Honeychurch. The main characters transformation form delightful to strong and bold matches the presentiment of the mood while riding toward Windy Corner.George Emerson strike s up an argument with Mr. Beebe about what life is based on fate or coincidence? George takes a standstill that fate is the controlling tempt in life which is portrayed by Forester in the way that George and Lucy seem to magically run into each other after Lucy is told by Miss Bartlett to not associate with the Emersons because they are Evil. This first instance is when Lucy comes across two Italians conflict when she is returning from touring the gift shops and is horrified to see an Italian man stabbed in the back over a debt of five schillings (Literature Notebook).She faints and when she wakes up she sees George who caught her when she fainted. Lucy straightway is startle at George being so close to her and makes a frantic hunt down for home. The second instance of fate bringing Lucy and George together is when Lucy encounters the Emersons at the Church. The Emersons give Lucy a nice lesson on medieval art and give her some interesting views on life to think about. The thin g about the universe is that it doesnt fit, remarks George which portrays his deep thought, sensitivity, and intelligence (Forster 25).A 3rd instance is when the Italian clergyman leads Lucy to George when they are on the carriage scold to see the beautiful homes and landscape of the countryside. Instead of leading Lucy to Miss Bartlett, like she requested in Italian, He leads her to George Emerson in the field of violet terraces. George turns and sees her and immediately kisses her, caught up in the beauty of the moment. The final instance is when Cecil, Lucys supposed suitor, invites the Emersons over to the garden party to absolve Lucys snobbishness by introducing perspectives of the lower class.Really, Cecil ends up ruining his own planned marriage with Lucy and foils his own happiness (Schwartz). What Forster wants to portray in this novel, is the personalities and opinions of his characters and how your social background can both influence you positively and negatively. He incorporates so many divers(prenominal) elements and personas into the story that it leaves the reader to be saturated the feelings and emotions of the characters very strongly. You get a strong feeling of the class snobbery, transformation of Lucy Honeychurch, influence of fate, and a real insight into the opinions of Lucy Honeychurch.Forester brings all of these elements and ties it together with the ongoing transformation of Lucy Honey church form a weak, naive woman to a sophisticated, strong woman. The intense influence of Miss Bartlett finally is broken when Lucy begins to go and explore Italy for herself and starts to have her own thoughts and secrets. Lucy Honeychurch, at first, finds herself constrained by the claustrophic influence of her Guardians, especially Miss Bartlett. However, Lucy takes control of her own fate and finds love with George Emerson, who views her as a Room with A View.In Contrast, Cecil views Lucy as a View without a room, or just something to have an d look at like a piece of art (Ford). He tried to manipulate herself and work into a masterpiece, trying to contort her imperfections while George respected her thoughts and opinions and loved her for who she was. Not to mention Cecils struggle with any intimacy whatsoever toward Lucy, even a kiss. So, in conclusion Forster incorporates the oblivion of class control over Lucy Honeychurch and the prevalence of Lucy transforming into an independent woman to control her own fate and end up with George Emerson, despite her class opinion of him.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Education and Social Change

tuition and affable Change program line in Technical Sense. Is the process by which baseball club through schools, colleges, universities, and opposite institutions, deliberately transmits its cultural heritage its accumu previous(a)d knowledge, values, and skills from one generation to another. Social Change * a response to m both type of change that press place on the party favorable and non-social environment * Generally modifyed by the agents of socialization rear Dewey * A prominent American philosopher and professor of the late 1800s and early 1900s * Father of Progressivism Progressivism was derived from pragmatism *John Dewey wrote the Essay on Education and Social Change* EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE * How schools participate in the Social Change * Dewey supports the notion that auberge is constantly changing, and that schooling reflects, generates, and guides social change. * *There is some confusion in how the school lead the society *Definition by the Conserv atives Conservatives Those People who are considered to be traditionalists. They want the oldish ways rather than the new ways. Conservatives are opposed to modernism and progressivism * Conservatives conceptualize that schools should not crop or guide social change * They favor older types of study and disciplinary methods in schools (Dewey, 2001, p. 335). Impotence of Education * Those who equal possessive and economic political regime, together with the standpat(prenominal)s, believes that education does not influence social order or social change. * Economy is the influence, and education precisely reflects this social order and the dominant economic class. * Nothing can hange without overthrowing this dominant economic class and replacing it with another, not even for education. * Dewey argues that if all of this were true, because any coup of the current dominant economic class would alike have to bring with it other changes in the morals, mentality, and culture of s ociety so that this new system/social order can survive * plainly Dewey finds no evidence that an economic change can solely establish these other kinds of changes in society * Schools shape morals, mentality, and culture in organization with the economic class. Education still plays a vital role in social change * Dewey states that schools and educators can Dewey states that schools and educators can a) continue to influence society without exploring b) employ a scientific method of teaching and learning that corresponds with the cultural forces that learning that corresponds with the cultural forces that cause social change. ) take a conservative approach and make schools a force of maintaining old order and rejecting any new a force of maintaining old order and rejecting any new forces that steer society away from this old social order. Democracy * Since Dewey argues that education infulences social change, then it must have some frame of reference, or else education would be meaningless. * Democracy was the frame of reference No catch definition but involves active participation for society * Education was founded on the principle of equal opportunity * Acting and making decisions together helps earn a better society. Psychosocial Development Theory * Erik Erikson * Based on an separates development * Trust vs Mistrust * Autonomy vs Shame and mistrust * Initiative vs Guilt * Industry vs Inferiority * Identity vs Role cloudiness * Intimacy vs Isolation * Generativity vs Stagnation * Integrity vs Despair SUMMARY * John Dewey founded Progressivism Progressivism is the educational theory that supports active learning * John Deweys leaven Education and Social Change tells us about how schools participate in Social Change * Conservatives disagree with Dewey because they believe that School should not affect the individual or the society * Some believe that it was the economy thats responsible for social change and education reflects the social orders * Dewey presented his points and made a strong point that what the Conservatives and others were pointing was wrong * educational and Social change has a symbiotic relationship, they benefit from each other * Dewey wanted primarily was Educational Democracy * Erik Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development helps us understand how an individual develops and understand himself, thus, he finds his position in the society.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Critically analyze Brandom and Haugeland’s views regarding Cartesianism

The impression of Cartesianism is that every and/or any issue that can be doubted must be discarded, and judgementlly formulated a upstart in value to be cemented in truthfulness. questioning is the commencement way of determine whether something is practiceful, and if it isnt, you discard what you know and basic altogethery create it in such a way that is useful. We apply this Cartesianism in a social context when we look at society, politics and the interactions of people on any communicative grounds.This would include linguistics, mentation and any opposite forms of interaction that form any kind of ground bunk for social and societal interaction. victimisation Cartesianism, we can draw distinctions surrounded by such things. We will look at the notions of language, terra firmaing and thinking, in terms of the works of two philosophers, Robert Brandom and John Haugeland, with the stress on comparing and contrasting their unique views. Brandom Freedom, Norms, Reason and patternRobert Brandoms views on individualal freedom were rooted in the difference amid how he perceived his forerunners on the subject matter he comp ard and contrasted Kant and Hegel in his work Freedom and Constraint by Norms. In this work, he critically observes the rear end from which Kant and Hegel analyzed the ideas of personal freedom, as expressed or refuted by norms. In order to assemble out these principles freedom and norms we must first define them. Brandom had this to say about Kants viewpointOne of the about apocalyptic responses to the first good deal of concerns has been developed by the Kantian tradition the precept that freedom consists precisely in macrocosm constrained by norms rather than merely by causes, answering to what ought to be as well as what is. (1979, p. 187). We assume the concomitant here that norms atomic number 18 things which be get established oer time by society/community, and that they determine and decide how things s hould be dvirtuoso, by the scale-by-case and by the community.Where Kant pragmatically argued that society used norms to determine the singulars actions, Brandom also included how Hegel proposed a contrastive approach, from a different angle The central feature determining the character of any resource of human freedom is the account offered of positive freedom (freedom to) those respects in which our activity should be distinguished from the mere lack of foreign causal constraint (freedom from) (1979, p. 187). Brandom come alongs his argument by taking his proposed solution into the domain of the linguistic.He argues that the founding of norms, with regards to their use in regulating society and the singulars sh ar therein, requires creative expression from individualistics in order to promote the Hegelian concept of idealistic, positive freedom. Ultimately, Brandom proposes a post-Hegelian solution, unrivaled which builds on Hegels initial statements and ideally ass ists the introducement of individuals within a communal setting. In A well-disposed Route from Reasoning to Representing, Brandom further seeks the generally held principles that individual beingnesss are loose of reasoning and reasonable aspect processes.Because of this inherent trait, fostered in the up rescue of severally(prenominal) individual, truth by inference or deductive reasoning becomes a cornerstone of the vistas and actions of every individual. The exploration of the difference between actually thinking and thinking about something is established and represented by the accepted measuring rod that individuals move in social circles, and so influence each others ideas and notions of reason. Common ground is found in these motions, or as Brandom qualifies, the figural dimension reflects the social structure in the game of talent and asking for reason. (2000, p. 183). Haugeland Truth, Rules and affable Cartesianism John Haugeland approaches the idea behind th e social establishments in much the same way as Brandom. He explores the same set of topics in his work Truth and Rule-following, where he mentions the idea of norms as being bound to rules and how the social circle comprised of unique individuals see such institutes. These rules are divided into concomitantual and political science, with factual being held as understood and upheld by all and governing as normative how they ought to be (Haugeland, 1998, p. 306).Haugeland also argues that these norms are upheld by a communal motion to associate and create similarities between individuals conformity. He further proposes that social normativity can be grounded in biological normativity the same principles and arguments can be applied, but only insofar as human beings are capable of reason, and that a biological body by contrast follows certain pre contumacious, preprogrammed sets or rules, while a reasoning promontory can ineluctably adapt around or expand on conditions and work b eyond them, as a biological preset cannot.This supports the idea of governing norms being changeable, separate from objective truth. Also, social norms are enacted with the input of others, in a sense promoting a system where one member of the community checks up on the others, and vice versa. Haugelands case is concluded with an emphatic argument for the similarity and union between norms of reason (governing norms) and objective truth (factual norms) boiling d knowledge to being the same thing both(prenominal) are in fact changeable, if in different, subjective ways.With societal Cartesianism, Haugeland explores the work of three other philosophers, objectifying the reason for his assumptions based on the use of philosophy in language, which all three works the works of Goodman, Quine and Wittgenstein/Kripke explore in some form. The reason for this analysis is Cartesian in origin. The first work, by Goodman, is an argument based on defining predicates accepted rules and ex amination the limits of their acceptability, in true, doubtful, Cartesian style.The work of Quine focuses on the elements of translation, of taking personally accepted norms and placing them over a culture with differing norms, thereby defining that culture concord to our own way of doing things. Lastly, the debate ventured by Wittgenstein/Kripke is one of skepticism that proposes that all norms are social, not private In sum if meanings must be normative, but individuals cant impose norms on themselves, whence private, individual meanings are impossible (Haugeland, p. 219).Haugeland extrapolates that each one of these arguments is fundamentally flawed, based on the conclusion he draws regarding each of the three works shortcomings they all crack to account for the substantial world, the world that everyone lives in and is unnatural by. Brandom versus Haugeland Perhaps the most obvious similarity between Brandom and Haugelands individual accounts and reasoning is the fact that they approach the same kinds of topics social situation, individuality, freedom, language and thought.Despite various approaches and held viewpoints, both are compelled to a certain Cartesian way of doing things, of discarding everything or anything that is not beyond doubt and recreating these things anew by using sound reasoning. Brandom is fond of referencing Kant and Hegel and placing them in opposition against each other, most notably in stating their viewpoints from necessity and preindication Kant held the view that norms dictated freedom and individuality, whereas Hegel was more(prenominal) positive in expressing his views on freedom ultimately determining norms.In a similar fashion, Haugeland approached the subject of norms and normativity, and how they affected individuals, both linguistically and thoughtfully. We will look at the compare of norms and normativity first, and then spread outward into linguistics and thought. The view of normativity being a decision makin g factor, most notably on a linguistic rump, for representing the two polarities of norms and facts, is upheld by both philosophers.Brandom sees norms as something which is instituted based on reason, on the idea that they are something that is held by a communal mindset and imposed on the individual. Facts in turn are things which are accepted as a given up by not only individuals but also by the community. rivet on linguistics, Brandom draws on translation, on the action of placing or transposing one set of accepted norms from, say, one communitys point of view onto other communitys point of view. Note here that Haugeland also reference the idea of translation in his critique of Quines work.This poses the first real contrast between Brandom and Haugelands points of view Brandom poses the idea that translation promotes assimilation By translating, rather than causally explaining some performance, we extend our community (the one which engages in the social practices into whi ch we translate the strangers behavior) so as to include the stranger, and treat his performances as variants of our own. (1979, p. 191). The act of making something your own, drawing something or someone in from outside your boundaries, speaks of a shift of norms.Logically it can be argued that assimilating something new forces your way of thinking about something to be adapted to accommodate what is new, even if what has been absorbed becomes a representation of something completely new and different. In this we see Brandoms shift to the Hegelian idea of the novel, the new, being created in a positive sense in order to advance and enhance the communal whole. Haugeland contrasts by referencing Quine although the translations are different, there is no fact as to which of them is the right one, because there is no objective matter to be right or wrong about. (cited from Haugeland, ). Haugeland would seemingly disagree with Brandoms use of translation as a elbow room of successfull y desegregation norms, of taking norm and transforming it into fact. Translation still argues for something similar, not new it presupposes a universal component that stretches through all languages. Judgment is another chance on concept, one bound to reason and thought. Brandom cites Kant once more in bringing to the fore the sense that one must act from thought, and that judging and playacting requires a consignment, staking a claim undertaking a commitment (1979, p. 164).Brandom repeats the basis of linguistics, of the game played between people, based on inference and the inherent ability to deduce and conclude. An individual can naturally deduce something talk or gestured from another individual by making a commitment to do so. This commitment relies heavily on the shared understanding between individuals, the factual norms that are referenced again and again as a means of achieving the communal awareness of similarity. Haugeland agrees here linguistically, words must eng ender a normal, generic meaning in order for the speaking individual to be understood.There must be common ground. He continues by express that meanings, by their very nature, are normative rules, and emphasizes this dilemma by citing this shell And the essential problem is that individuals cannot impose norms on themselves. For that would be like taking a dictator, with absolute legal authority, to be bound by her own law. But she cant really be bound by her own law since, given her authority, if she changes her mind and does something different, that just changes the law which is similar to saying that the law did not bind her in the first place.Similarly an individual cannot, on his own authority, bind himself by his private norm. (Haugeland, , p. 219). The crux of this comparison between Haugeland and Brandom is that both agree on the fact that law, in a sense, and rules, must be used to bind a norm, albeit a governing one a norm based on reason. A person cannot be subject to his/her own norms, indeed the norms must be implement from outside the individual from the communal.Coming back to the linguistic component again, we can logically assume that language as a means of communication forms a regulating basis here. The words, actions and judgment of others forces a certain conformity, a means whereby an individual can operate and coexist within a community. Thought has always been at the core of the human need to define him/herself. The motto cogito ergo sum (I think therefore I am) has been advanced to more complex statements. Rene Descartes advanced dubito, ergo cogito, ergo sum (Latin for I doubt, therefore I think, therefore I am) (Persaud, p. 259).Cartesian philosophy dwells deeply on thought processes, so it should be unsurprising that both Brandom and Haugeland spent some thought on the dynamics of applying Cartesian methods on the thought process. Haugeland praised Descartes input, going further than the original assumptions made by Descar tes and stating that The determinacy that matters here concerns not the formal existence of those ideas but rather their objective reality (roughly their intentional content as representations. ) (Haugeland, , p. 224). In other words, Haugeland implies that human individuals in isolation, as subjectively separate, is sensibly unimportant.What matters ultimately is the collective, the union of all individuals in an objective community, not necessarily defined by the community but by their place in it, and their unique contributions to it. Brandom seems to agree by stating The social dimension of inference deduction affect in the communication to others of claims that must be available as reasons common ground both to the speaker individual and to the audience collective, community, in spite of differences in collateral commitments, is what underlies the representational dimension of discourse communication. (2000, p. 183).Summed up, the previous statement can be matched to Haugel ands assumptions the community is not the only important thing, but in order for norms, rules and laws to make sense regarding thought, language and freedom, the community or collective of necessity to operate on a standard of shared understanding, so that each unique individual can still function and interact with others scorn the individuality. Conclusion Through using Cartesian principles regarding the discovery of usefulness, we fool come to the conclusion that, with regards to using doubt as a means of determining an outcome or a reality, pragmatism is in fact a necessary element.Reality, as Haugeland would have us believe, is not simply determined by the individuals, communities and their norms only, but rather arises from the world we live in first, forwards casting a shadow of effects over the individual and the rest. We have argued that Brandom and Haugeland, though often different in their modes of expression and discourse, are merely in agreement on many of the key as pects regarding norms, whether factual or governing, subjective or objective.At the end, Cartesian doubt influences thought, and thought influences language and interaction between people, yielding a collected sense of understanding and at long last yielding a system of laws, rules and judgments that govern and regulate society and community. However, in conclusion it is perhaps better to emphasize Hegels idealism as opposed to Kants pragmatism that freedom be positive, to allow for creative thinking within the system and to not be bound by external causes such as rules and laws only. References Brandom, R. B. (2000). A Social Route from Reasoning to Representing.Articulating Reasons an foundation garment to Inferentialism. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Brandom, R. B. (1979). Freedom and Constraint by Norms. American Philosophical Quarterly, heap 16, 13, 87-196. Haugeland, J. (). Social Cartesianism. 213-225. Haugeland, J. (1998). Truth and Rule-following. Having Thought Essays in the metaphysics of mind. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Persaud, R. (2002) Ten Books. The British Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 181, 258-261, Retrieved May 17, 2008, from http//bjp. rcpsych. org/cgi/content/full/181/3/258.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Methods

Discuss the main differences amidst soft and quantitative improvementes to data collection and analysis in circumspection look into. Your answer should chip in reference to the philosophical assumptions which underpin these methodological approach pathes. psychiatric hospital Whenever a decision is made to undertake a piece of explore a method for conducting the study is required. In scientific interrogation the proficiencys typically put ond for data collection and analysis are those which allow the rating of data to test a pre tempt hypothesis (Zikmund, 2000).An type of this is a laboratory- ground experiment where the exploreer stick out be in full conceal of all the variables involved and groundwork at that placefrom be sure that whatsoever change in the phenomena under investigation is a direct termination of an identified and controlled stimulus. In merchandising seek however, which is usually reliant on some aspect of tender-hearted influence, it has b een proposed that such(prenominal) a uniform, rigid approach is non appropriate There is never a single, perfect explore design that is the best for all trade seek projects, or til now a specific type of merchandise look for task. (Malhotra and Birks, 2000 p. 70) The intention of this subsidization is to critically evaluate the quantitative and soft approaches to query, specifically digesting on the trade perspective. To do this, consideration is low g archaeozoic given to the basic differences surrounded by the qualitative and quantitative approaches, considering the seemingly fence surmisal-establish figures from which they have originated. later on the development of the market break is examined with a specific focus on how and why different interrogation methods have been employed in the matter. assistance is Page 1 of 1 iven to the need for selling to address twain(prenominal) the issue of verifying subsisting hypotheses, and the requirement to deve lop new opening. As there come forths to be no ideal inquiry method for single-valued function in selling it would seem that what is important is existence critically conscious of the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches available. Finally, therefore, the notion of pluralism, or methodological triangulation, is explored as such an approach is frequently drug abused to exploit the strengths and minimise weaknesses in query design finished the combination of two or more than research methods, often from opposing theoretical paradigms.Basic differences between quantitative and qualitative research qualitative research can be defined as the collection, analysis and reading material of data that cannot be intendfully quantified, that is, summarised in the form of numbers. (Parasuraman et al, 2004 p. 195) Whereas quantitative research can be defined as the collection of data that involves larger, more representative respondent samples and the numerical calculation o f gives. (Parasuraman et al, 2004 p. 195)Historically it has been considered that lore based disciplines such as mathematics and physics are especially suitable to quantitative research methods. Such methods are considered to be objective and turn oer to numerical, absolute outcomes, which can be verified by dint of repetition and get along testing (Zikmund, 2000) in other words the do itledge is external to the apprehender (Mil caren, 2001), and therefore is available be found by whoever conducts the essential research (Cunningham, 1999).This view of subjective science can be considered to fit at bottom the positivist paradigm, where a paradigm can be thought of as theoretical cloth for looking at a situation and a base of operations upon which phenomena can be analysed and interpreted Page 2 of 2 (Gill and Johnson, 2002). Kuhn (1970) supports the need for paradigms on the basis that they bind disciplines together, and without them there would be no valid position from which to undertake research. Deshpande (1983) suggests that the acceptance of a ill-tempered theoretical aradigm is typically followed by a choice of a specific descend of research methods that appear to fit deep down it. This is perhaps exemplified by the evidential use of laboratory experiments in double-dyed(a) scientific disciplines. Within the affable sciences however there has been a long-standing argumentation surrounding which philosophical standpoint, or paradigm, it is appropriate for research methods to be derived from (Milliken, 2001). Cohen et al (2000) consider there to be two major, apparently contradictory, views relating to how research should be conducted within social science.The first aligns social science with natural science and therefore imp lyings that research in the field should be directed towards the search for universal laws which regulate psyche social behaviour. The second focuses on the human element of social science research, with recognitio n of the notion that people are not inanimate objects and therefore cannot be treated as such. Aligning social science with natural science arguably implies that data collection and analysis is best performed from a positivist standpoint.As research methods favoured by positivists tend towards those reliant on quantification (Gill and Johnson, 2002), it would follow that in attention research the focus should be on quantitative research methods. question conducted from the positivist viewpoint is usually considered to be reductionist in nature, and is often termed hypothetico-deductive, as it aims to derive a result in relation to a predefined hypothesis (Zikmund, 2000).Conversely, an approach to research which embraces human individuality and governs emphasis on how people perceive and give meaning to their own Page 3 of 3 socially created gentleman, can be considered constructivist ( ply, 1994), and phenomenological (Gill and Johnson, 2002). The focus from this standpoint is t herefore on understanding, interpreting and building conjecture kind of than objectively testing, deducing and verifying an existing hypothesis. Such an approach can be considered inductive in nature and therefore favours the traceion of qualitative research methods. ollows the close to telling and fundamental distinction between the paradigms is on the dimension of stoppage versus discoveryquantitative methods have been positive most directly for the task of verifying or confirming theories andqualitative methods were deliberately developed for the task of discovering or generating theories. (Reichardt and Cook, 1979 cited in Deshpande, 1983 p. 105) This can be explained come on as At the extreme of the inductive spectrum lies the concept of grounded theory developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967).Here the police detective builds theory based entirely on the data find oneselfed in a particular study without the influence of predetermined knowledge or preconceived hypothese s. Taking deduction to the extreme hypotheses can only ever be tested, raising the question of how it is possible to obtain a hypothesis in the first place. This presents a number of dilemmas with realise to research in the field of management, including whether it is more appropriate to test existing hypotheses or to develop new theory.The theory-testing versus theory- coevals debate is particularly significant in the field of marketing as, due(p) to the comparative youth of the discipline, marketers are confront with the repugn of both obtaining and confirming respect and credibility for the work that has been done so far (Bartels, 1983) and continuing to pay off theory needed to develop a coherent, holistic body of knowledge which will clear up marketings existing theory mess (Gummesson, 2002 p. 349). Page 4 of 4Development of research in the field of marketing The discipline of marketing, which came slightly as a departure from economics not long afterwards 1900, origina lly had no identity of its own. There was no predetermined framework for its development, nor any real expectation of what it should, or could, conk out (Bartels, 1983). The way the discipline started to develop however led to a belief that it had meritorious scientific character (Bartels, 1983 p. 34), which subsequently influenced ideas nearly the way in which credible research in the field should be conducted.Consequently approaches to research in marketing have historically been dominated by deductive processes (Hyde, 2000). Milliken (2001) supports this with the observation that within the marketing literature there has been little attention paying to qualitative research. If marketing was universally accepted to be akin to a pure science then this may be an acceptable situation. It has been suggested however that, rather than being a science, marketing is actually an art which belongs both to the world of business and the school of humanities (Halliday, 1999).It was noted by Deshpande (1983) that in the early 1980s there were only four major textbooks dealing with the metatheoretical issues in marketing, and it can therefore be understood that self conscious reflection factor on theory construction in marketing is of fairly recent origin. (p. 104). Peter (1982), supported by Deshpande (1983), argues that the dominant philosophical approach use in marketing is that of logical empiricist philosophy. Such a positivist approach forces a search for causality and the assumption of determinism (Hunt, 1994 p. 7), which directs those conducting marketing research towards hypotheticodeductive methods for the verification of existing theories rather than development of new ones. Page 5 of 5 Goulding (1999) suggests that the popularity of the positivist paradigm may be down to the more diaphanous rules which it projects with regard to the basis of hypotheses and their testing, resulting in a clearer picture of what is accepted to be known and what remains unk nown or untested.As marketing is a relatively early discipline, quantitative methods have therefore been regularly favoured over qualitative methods in an attempt to establish credibility and respectability (Bartels, 1983). thick (1993) unreservedly supports quantitative research and the scientific view of marketing, on the basis of the need to present world(a) laws and principles which can be widely applied. To underscore his position further Bass (1993) repeatedly refers to the discipline as not as marketing but as marketing science. in spite of this apparent favouritism of qualitative research, for establishing integrity and credence, it has been suggested that marketing as a discipline has failed to develop a coherent theoretical foundation due to the inappropriate selection and use of methods within the framework of logical empiricism (Leone and Schultz, 1980). criticises how qualitative research is implemented. Gummesson (2001) also He questions whether or not it is pprop riate to make a jump from a subjective answer given by a person, perhaps in the form of a questionnaire repartee, to hard facts about the population being studied, and furthermore if a model being selected for use in marketing research can be an appropriate delegate for the particular situation being studied. Gummesson (2001) instead advocates an interactive approach to research in marketing based on a humanistic, hermeneutic and phenomenological paradigm. (p. 40). Deshpande (1983) is in agreement with this and proposes that, rather that the incorrectly using quantitative research methods, the shortage in theory development in the field may lie in the inappropriate adoption of a quantitative paradigm where a qualitative one would be more appropriate If we ignore the qualitative paradigm, we also by definition exclude the principal systematic nitty-gritty of theory generation. (Deshpande, 1983 p. 106) Page 6 of 6The dominance of logical empiricism in marketing has therefore been seen as potentially detrimental to the discipline, because the triple-crown development of an appropriate holistic and sound body of theory is necessary for the credibility of the field in both management and academe (Bartels, 1983). Hunt (1994) however observes that scholars in the field of marketing, particularly those reviewing papers for publication in pedantic journals, may themselves be responsible for the overlook of theory generation by being over critical when reviewing the work of those who attempt to make an original contribution.According to Gummesson (2001) this behaviour reinforces the belief that to build a publications record, and a respectable reputation, marketers are being encouraged to test existing theory using quantitative methods rather than feed theory through qualitative investigation. This, it has been suggested, has resulted in there being no development in general management marketing theory over recent decades, leaving marketing as an array of disjo inted theories and ideas founded on arguably obsolete principles Gummesson (2001).The lack of credibility given to qualitative research techniques in marketing from the academic perspective does however appear somewhat ironic given that such methods are widely adopted in marketing research in industry (Deshpande, 1983). Although it may appear that qualitative marketing research is a relatively recent revelation, Deshpande (1983) argues that this is not the case. He observes that there was significant pursuit in the topic in the 1950s and 1960s.In the early 1980s, Fern (1982) suggested that the movement one specific qualitative technique, focus groups, had failed to gain prominence was a lack of empirical testing, which would allow the theory development necessary to fill credibility. In other words a qualitative technique struggled to generate recognition because it could not satisfy the positivistic evaluation criteria needed to do so. This is perhaps indicative of the historica l power of positivism in marketing academia in determining what can be accepted as credible Page 7 of 7 nd what cannot, regardless of whether or not techniques are accepted in the commercial environment. Malhotra and Peterson (2001) suggest that for marketing to move forward in the twenty-first century it is necessary to pair the gap between the academic and commercial positions. There is evidence of change magnitude acceptance of qualitative methods in marketing research, especially in managing research as the marketplace evolves. For example Kozinetz (2002) developed netnography as a technique for gaining insight into online communities based on a combination of the principles of ethnography and focus groups. quantifiable techniques it would appear still have their place in marketing research too, despite the criticisms levelled at them. The SERVQUAL questionnaire for example, originally developed by Parasuraman et al (1988), relies on the collection of data which can be statist ically manipulated to determine levels of service lineament. Notwithstanding the substantial criticism it has received (see Buttle, 1996), it is still being used in marketing research today (see e. g. DeMoranville and Bienstock, 2003).What it would consequently appear important to recognise is that both quantitative and qualitative methods have their place in marketing research neither is sufficient on its own, and there is potentially for significant advances to be made if marketing police detectives acknowledge this (Deshpande, 1983). Triangulation and methodological pluralism There is a place in marketing research for both qualitative and quantitative research. There is also a significant put on the line that overly staunch advocates of a single paradigm will throw in the quality of their research by valuing the methodological choice above the aim of the particularPage 8 of 8 study (Bartels, 1983). From a marketing research perspective the importance therefore lies in recogni tion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of both the qualitative and quantitative research and the understanding of the strengths and weakness of particular methods. Cahill (1996) supports this with the recognition that qualitative and quantitative techniques can be complementary, and Milliken (2001) suggests that the reality of a real research situation demands compromise between the seemingly fence philosophical standpoints on which the methods are based.Combining qualitative and quantitative methods presents the researcher with an opportunity to compensate for the weakness in each approach. (Deshpande, 1983), and within the field of marketing there appears to be a significant move towards unite qualitative and quantitative research methods (Milliken, 2001). Perry (1998) emphasises the benefit of case study methodological analysis in marketing and suggests that there is no need to consider consequence and deduction to be mutually exclusive when selecting a research met hod.He emphasises that realism is the most appropriate paradigm from which to undertake marketing research as it allows the building of new theory whilst incorporating existing knowledge. Strength in method combination does not necessarily have to include qualitative and quantitative approaches. Hall and Rist (1999) present a marketing study based on the triangulation of purely qualitative research methods including focus groups, observation and instrument examination.They argue that doing this eliminates the risks of relying on a single method and therefore enhances research quality and strengthens the credibility of qualitative techniques. Page 9 of 9 methodological pluralism, whilst appearing to strain reconciliation between opposing theoretical paradigms in relation to research method choice, does itself introduce debate and criticism. Gill and Johnson (2002) for example note that embracing realism can be seen as judge positivism at the cost of phenomenology as it may involve the operationalization and touchstone of social reality (stimuli) and action (response) (p. 170). Consequently, combining research methods can itself become part of the argument rather than a solution. Conclusion The decision of whether to adopt qualitative or quantitative methods in management research historically appears to be based on the philosophical assumptions upheld by the individual researcher or the discipline in which he or she is working.A paradigmatic dichotomy between positivism and phenomenology (or constructivism) would seem to have resulted in a situation where, in some instances, the research methodology choice is deemed more significant than the subject of the particular study. market is a relatively young discipline within the field of management and, as such, is faced with the challenge of obtaining and maintaining credibility.To do this it has been proposed that it needs to both test existing theory and generate new theory, however the processes required to achieve these two goals can be seem to stem from diametrically opposed paradigms theory-testing being achievable through deductive methods and theory generation relying on an inductive approach. This incommensurability has however been challenged with the impudence that what is important is selecting an appropriate methodology for a particular study, rather than equal aPage 10 of 10 study to a method. methodological triangulation has been suggested as a means of achieving this, with a move towards a paradigm of realism where the relative advantages and disadvantages of a number of research methods can be embraced. Whilst at face value this approach may appear to offer a compromise offering the best practical solution to the methodological choice dispute, it also introduces criticism of its own which, in turn fuels the debate further.The general aim of this discussion, to consider the differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods, has itself been conducted from an ostensibly positivistic standpoint. In fact any discussion, comparison or assessment of research methods is arguably starting from a predetermined enter that an objective evaluation is being undertaken (Gill and Johnson, 2002), and can therefore be seen to be embracing positivist ideals.Taking into account the amount of attention that has been paid to philosophical approaches to management research the ambiguities that are apparent the ongoing search for the most suitable and appropriate means for conducting studies and the motivation to establish and maintain credibility, it would seem unlikely that end to the debate regarding research methods in management is in sight Like the earth being round, thus lack a natural end, the journey in Methodologyland has no end. You search again and again and again, just as the term says re-search, re-search, re-search. (Gummesson, 2001 p. 29) Page 11 of 11 References Bartels, R. (1983), Is marketing defaulting its responsibilities? , dayb ook of merchandising, 47(4), pp. 32-35 Bass, F. M. (1993), The future of research in marketing Marketing intelligence, diary of Marketing Research, 30(1), pp. 1-6 Buttle, F. (1996), SERVQUAL review, critique, research agenda, European journal of Marketing, 30(1), pp. 8-32 Cahill, D. J. (1996), When to use qualitative methods a new approach, Marketing watchword &038 Planning, 14(6), pp. 16-20 Cohen, L. , Manion, L. and Morr, K. 2000), Research Methods in Education, 5th Edition, Routledge capital of the United Kingdom Cunningham, A. C. (1999), Commentary confessions of a reflective practitioner meeting the challenges of marketings destruction, European Journal of Marketing, 33(7/8), pp. 685-697 DeMoranville, C. W. and Bienstock, C. C. (2003), Question order effects in measuring service quality, International Journal of research in Marketing, 20(3), pp. 217-231 Deshpande, R. (1983), Paradigms Lost On theory and method in research in marketing, Journal of Marketing, 47(4), pp. 101-1 10 Fern, E. F. 1982), The use of focus groups for idea generation the effects of group size, acquaintanceship, and moderator on response quantity and quality, Journal of Marketing Research, 19(1), pp. 1-13 Gill, J. and Johnson, P. (2002), Research Methods For Mangers, third Edition, London SAGE Publications Ltd Glaser, B. G. and Strauss, A. L. (1967), The Discovery of Grounded Theory Strategies for qualitative Research, Aldine Publishing Company wampum Goulding, C. (1999), Consumer research, interpretive paradigms and methodological ambiguities, European Journal of Marketing, 33(9/10), pp. 59-873 Gummesson, E. (2001), Are current research approaches in marketing leading us astray? , Marketing Theory, 1(1), pp. 27-48 Gummesson, E. (2002), realistic value of adequate marketing management theory, European Journal of Marketing, 36(3), pp. 325-349 Hall, A. L. and Rist, R. C. (1999), Integrating multiple qualitative research methods (or avoiding the precariousness of a one-legged stool) , psychological science &038 Marketing, 16(4), pp. 291304 Page 12 of 12 Halliday, S. 1999), I dont know much about art, but I know what I like resonance, relevance and illumination as assessment criteria for marketing research and acquaintance, Marketing Intelligence &038 Planning, 17(7), pp. 345-362 Hunt, S. D. (1994), On rethinking marketing Our discipline, our practice, our methods, European Journal of Marketing, 28(3), pp. 13-25 Hyde, K. F. (2000), Recognising deductive processes in qualitative research, Qualitative Market Research, 3(2), pp. 82-90 Kozinets, R. V. (2002), The field behind the screen Using Netnography for marketing research in online communities, Journal of Marketing Research, 39(1), pp. 1-72 Kuhn, T. S. (1970), The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd Edition, Chicago University of Chicago Press Leone, R. P. and Schultz, R. L. (1980), A study of marketing generalizations, Journal of Marketing, 44(1), pp. 10-18 Malhotra, N. K. and Birks, D. F. (2000), Market ing Research An Applied Approach, 3rd European Edition, Harlow, England Financial Times Prentice Hall Malhotra, N. K. and Peterson, M. (2001), Marketing research in the new millennium emerging issues and trends, Marketing Intelligence &038 Planning, 19(4), pp. 16-235 Milliken, J. (2001), Qualitative research and marketing management, Management Decision, 39(1), pp. 71-77 Parasuraman, A. , Grewal, D. and Krishnan, R. (2004), Maketing Research, Boston, USA Houghton Mifflin Company Parasuraman, A. , Zeithaml, V. A. and Berry, L. L. (1988), SERVQUAL A multiple-item scale for measuring consumers perceptions of service quality, Journal of Retailing, 64(1), pp. 12-40 Perry, C. (1998), Process of a case study methodology for postgraduate research in marketing, 32(9/10), pp. 785-802 Peter, J. P. 1982), Current issues in the philosophy of science Implications for marketing theory a panel discussion, in Marketing Theory Philosophy of Science Perspectives, Bush, R. F. and Hunt, S. D. (eds. ), Chicago, American Marketing, pp. 11-16 Reichardt, C. S. and Cook, T. D. (1979), Beyond qualitative versus quantitative methods, in Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Evaluation Research, Cook, T. D and Reichardt, (eds. ) Beverley Hills, CA Sage Zikmund, W. G. (2000), Business Research Methods, 6th Edition, Orlando, USA The Dryden Press, Harcourt College Publishers Page 13 of 13

Monday, January 21, 2019

Social Responsibility in Business

In examining the mission statements of multiple companies, it is app bent that corporations pick out to prioritize mixer debt instrument. Companies like Whole Foods, Ben & adenosine monophosphateJerrys, Camano Island Coffee Roasters in all actively contri only ife to different amicable feats. Even Philip Morris prioritizes actively participating in societal concerns that be relevant to its commercees over generating returns for its stock cast offers (Philip Morris, 2011). There are numerous different views on the extent to which corporations should be involved in societal concerns.The three most prominent are the stockholder hypothesis, the concept of cordial business, and the stakeholder theory. Of these, the stakeholder theory is the most appropriate. Because corporations are bowl overed to be individuals within our society, they bear a certain amount of responsibility to their fellow citizens, so it is not exuberant for them to act tho in the interest of their stoc kholders. However, corporations are entitled to pee profits, and therefore enkindlenot be expected to act as purely well-disposed businesses.Consequently, businesses must look for a happy medium within the stakeholder theory, performing in the interests of the stockholders, customers, employees and civil society. Milton Friedman, a major proponent of the stockholder theory, argues that beyond legal compliance, the social responsibility of business is to join on its profits, meaning corporations hold responsibilities only to their shareholders and the justness (Friedman, 1970). One of the main points he addresses is the position that when a political party manager spends the companys money on a social cause, he/she takes a itinerary from the maximum possible returns to the stockholders.In addition to fetching from the stockholders, the price of the product may rise, taking away from the consumer, or fee might fall, taking away from the employees. Because of this, the manager is in effect bossy taxes, on the one hand, and deciding how the tax proceeds shall be spent, on the other (Friedman, 1970). Friedman call fors taxes are the responsibility of the government and giving the corporations money to a social cause is a form of tax without representation. This would be the case if the manager were merely donating the funds to a cause of his/her choosing.However, Camano Island Coffee Roasters (CICR) supports its own industry by ensuring that they participate in honorable Trade. In addition to participating in blank Trade, CICR helps the coffee farmers by making sure they own the land they work, as well as helping to keep their children well nourished (Gunter, 2007). By helping the farmers from whom CICR buys its coffee, it ensures that it can use the bring in 1% of the available coffee market (Gunter, 2007). As a result of its acts of altruism, Camano Island Coffee Roasters has been able to ensure a top quality product and consequently has been a ve ry successful corporation.Friedmans theory is besides similar to the trickle- nap theory. He believes that by maximizing profits, corporations go away help the less fortunate by providing better goods and services as well as higher(prenominal) wages. However, like the trickle-down theory, the result is the CEOs of corporations make millions of dollars, whereas the dismay level employees barely make enough to survive. Ben and Jerrys is a faultless example of a company that does not abide by Friedmans philosophy, and yet has been extraordinarily successful.They manage to provide the highest quality product possible, in addition to paying their employees what they call living wage, making sure the last paid employees are still making well in a higher place the lower limit wage (LEDA article). For Ben and Jerrys, the tax, as Friedman would call it, is taken from the highest paid employees of the company. An article reviewing Ben and Jerrys business ethics says Consistent with thei r mission for social responsibility, the highest paid employees of Ben & Jerrys would not earn more than seven times more than the lowest paid full-time employees (LEDA article).Despite the success of socially responsible corporations, Friedman would argue that these companies would stupefy had greater success if they had foc utilize solely on turning higher profits. Therefore it is critical to consider the possibilities for corporations to act in an unethical style even when complying with Friedmans philosophy. When Ford released the Pinto, it was aware of the potential for customers to be killed collect to a flaw in the Pintos design.Despite this knowledge, based on a cost-benefit analysis, Ford determined it would be less costly to deal with the law suits brought by people who were injured or killed rather than to recall and beget each car. Ford was well within the legal requirements for car prophylactic at the time and legally sold the Pinto, despite the danger. However, by not considering the consequences of its actions beyond just the financial, Ford was responsible for over fifty deaths (American Decades, 2001). fit in to Friedman, this decision to value profit over human lives was perfectly ethical. On the other side of the pectrum from the stockholder-oriented philosophy is a new field of business called social business. By definition, a social business is a non-loss, non-dividend company whose focus is not on profits, but on furthering a social cause (Yunus, 2010). Nobel Peace prize laureate Muhammad Yunus is the founder of this field of incorporate social responsibility. In 2006, Yunus collaborated with a French food company called Danone to arrange the first social business, Grameen Danone. Its mission is to provide children in rural Bangladesh with nutrients that are lacking from their diet.An article on the Danone website says the success of the project volition above all be judged on non-financial criteria the number of direct and in direct jobs created (milk producers, atrophied wholesalers, door to door give awayers), improvements to childrens health, protection of the environment etc (Danone, 2011). However, based on the way we currently measure the success of corporations, Grameen Danone would appear to be a very unsuccessful business. Do social businesses and non-profit organizations necessitate a change in the conventional rules of determining the success of a corporation?It is highly flimsy that many corporations will adopt such a radical method as social business. Therefore, while social businesses should be commended, and even used as inspiration, for their contribution to society, it is more reasonable for corporations to focus on the interests of both their stockholders and community. R. Edward Freeman is one of the founders of the stakeholder theory, which says that companies hold responsibilities to five main groups including shareholders, consumers and the general public.Unlike social business, Freemans stakeholder theory is not meant to be a bumble to the stockholder theory, but rather, Freeman argues that the views of both Friedman and Yunus are just narrower versions of the stakeholder theory (Theoretical and Pedagogical Issues). Freeman says that in modern society businesses must consider multiple stakeholders when making decisions. Whole Foods provides an example of a company which takes into pecker more than just making profits. Whole Foods purchases its products from topical anaesthetic farmers despite the fact that this raises the costs of its goods.Even though this may hurt its checkbook, Whole Foods is able to sell healthier and higher quality products while also supporting its local community. In addition to performing altruistic acts, many of Whole Foods customers are loyal because of its ethical methods of doing business (Conversation with John Mackey, 2011). Whole Foods also goes beyond merely making profits by creating trust with its employees. When exe cuting a merger with the company Wild Oats, Whole Foods needed to c recede down many of the Wild Oats locations because they were in markets where there were already Whole Foods stores located.However, instead of firing the Wild Oats workers, Whole Foods offered solid job protective cover and replacing positions at the existing Whole Foods locations. In an interview, in regards to the job security offered to Wild Oats employees, Whole Foods CEO John Mackey said, First of all, thats the ripe(p) thing to do, and secondly, if people have a lot of anxiety that they could lose their jobs, that inhibits their ability to learn and adapt. I feel youve got to offer security if you lack to get people to move forward. Otherwise theyre too scared. (John Mackey Interview, 2008)Not only does this stakeholder approach to business result in societally beneficial actions, but it also leads to more efficient, harder working employees. However, there are problems with the stakeholder approach to business ethics. many another(prenominal) argue that an adoption of stakeholder theory, over stockholder, would undermine shareholder property rights and discourage rectitude investment ( moral philosophy Gone Wrong, 2000). Advocates of this concept claim that because corporations must cater to the call for of groups other than their shareholders, the potential of the stockholders investment diminishes significantly ( ethics Gone Wrong, 2000).Contrary to this idea, investment vehicles like the Calvert Investment Mutual caudex provide investment portfolios that integrate deuce distinct research frameworks a rigorous review of financial performance, and a thorough assessment of environmental, social and governance performance. (Calvert Investments, 2011). The success of the Calvert Mutual Fund provides evidence that even when considering corporations that apply stakeholder-oriented business practices, the value and trade-ability of equity enceinte does not diminish.Therefore, ev en if most corporations adopt a stakeholder-oriented perspective, the effects on the stock market and on equity capital will be much less severe than critics predict. Another issue often address by critics of the stakeholder theory is that an adoption of the stakeholder philosophy would result in an increase in self-serving behavior among managers. This is because managers will be able to attract to the conflicting demands of different stakeholders in order to circumvent certain responsibilities, as well as indulge in self-serving behaviors.Advocates of stockholder-oriented business claim that adopting the stakeholder philosophy will not only multiply the amount of self-serving managers, but will also make it even more unvoiced to discipline such behavior. Alexei M. Marcoux, a critic of the stakeholder theory, says, Between the ability of managers to relinquish their self-serving behavior in terms of the balanced pursuit of stakeholder interests and the protections that a stakeho lder-oriented corporate law must afford to managers the accountability of managers for their actions must inevitably suffer. (Ethics Gone Wrong, 2000). However, if firms are so intent on adhering to a unappeasable ethical code, there will be internal means by which such dishonorable behavior can be disciplined. Furthermore, in the hiring process, firms will ensure that managers will not act in self-serving ways, but instead maintain high ethical standards. Among the various philosophies regarding the social responsibility of businesses there is a spectrum ranging from exclusively profit-oriented to solely serving the community.However, because corporations are considered individuals within our society, it is incumbent upon them to use their position to achieve a balance surrounded by the responsibilities they hold to their shareholders and the responsibilities they hold to the other member of the society. Therefore, corporations should adhere to stakeholder-oriented business ethi cs. Bibliography Yunus, Mohammad. create hearty business. New York, NY PublicAffairs, 2010. Print. The Ford Pinto Case. American Decades. 2001. Encyclopedia. com. 5 May. 2011<http//www. encyclopedia. om>. Makower, Joel. Milton Friedman and the Social righteousness of Business. World Changing(2006) n. pag. Web. 5 May 2011. <http//www. worldchanging. com/archives/005373. hypertext mark-up language>. Marcoux, Alexei. Business Ethics Gone Wrong. CATO Institute22. 3 (2000) n. pag. Web. 5 May 2011. <http//www. cato. org/pubs/policy_report/v22n3/cpr-22n3. html>. Hooker, John. wherefore Business Ethics?. (2003) n. pag. Web. 5 May 2011. <http//web. tepper. cmu. edu/ethics/whybizethics. pdf>. Freeman, Edward, Ramakrishna Velamuri, and Brian Moriarty. Company Stakeholder tariff A New Approach to CSR. Business Roundtable Institute for incarnate Ethics(2006) n. pag. Web. 5 May 2011. <http//www. darden. virginia. edu/corporate-ethics/pdf/csr. pdf>. Fassin, Yves. The S takeholder Model Re? ned. Journal of Business Ethics83. (2006) 113-135. Web. 5 May 2011. <http//www. austincc. edu/njacobs/1370_Ethics/Ethics_Articles/Stakeholder. pdf>. Tupate, Patel. Ben & Jerrys a Moo-del of Corporate Social Responsibility. LEDAn. pag. LEDA at Harvard Law School.Web. 5 May 2011. <http//leda. law. harvard. edu/leda/data/236/Patel,_Tupate_-_Paper. html>. Gunter, Marie. Fair Trade or Fairly Traded?. Articlesbase. 2007. Web. 5 May 2011. <http//www. articlesbase. com/environment-articles/fair-trade-or-fairly-traded-fair-economy-promoters-share-views-with-onegreenglobecom-community-253833. html>. Freeman, Edward, Andrew Wicks, and doubting Thomas Jones. Stakeholder Theory The State of the Art. Theoretical and Pedagogical Issuesn. pag. Web. 5 May 2011. <http//www. blackwellpublishing. om/ field/BPL_Images/Content_store/Sample_chapter/0631221220%5Cbowie. pdf>. Public Trust in Business- John Mackey of Whole Foods. Business Ethics and Leadership. Web. 5 May 2011. <http//josephsoninstitute. org/business/blog/tag/r-edward-freeman/>. Danone Website http//www. danone. com/en/what-s-new/focus-4. html Calvert Investments Website http//www. calvert. com/products-funds-by-sri-approach. html Philip morris Website http//www. philipmorrisusa. com/en/cms/Company/Mission_Values/default. aspx? src=top_nav

Compensation Package Proposal

stipend is a very substantial verbalism of the employee of a accomp any it seems important a well-defined recompense mail boat is in place. Compensation involves direct cash throwments, validating payments in the system of employee earns, and incentives to motivate employees to strive for higher levels of productivity. (Cascio, 2010, p. 413) It seems a remuneration package allow for be different for each different c beer type besides must always tackle the postulates of the employees and the organization. A proposal for a total compensation package for the information engine room employees of Wal-Mart needs to be written.This proposal will include a description of the farm out group, a compensation table for specific positions, a placement policy, benefits packages, and the way the plan is implemented by the organization. Job Group teaching Technology Employees Information technology seems to be a field with rapid growth correspond to Taylor (2010), cargoners i n the IT world expects to grow 32% by 2018. It appears every company has some kind of computer link up work involved to assistant the company succeed. A strong background in the technical fundamentals of computer science and programming languages like Java, Microsoft.NET, and C++ ar intelligiblely important for success in the field. But a creative originator and an ambition to stay updated on the impertinentlyest advances in the field &8212 whether through books or training &8212 are alike key (Taylor, 2010, para. 4). Information Technology also involves strong communication with others, creativity, the ability to work in a team, and a strong undergraduate background. Although much knowledge is need to succeed in IT, it appears the pay scale and advancement opportunities will pay off.Positions within this bowl of work include cyber-security, graphic design, technology architects, web page developers, and packet engineers. Wal-Mart seems to be in search for technology empl oyees. Technology is use in Wal-Mart to run the global market. Wal-Mart (2012) states that The company is focused on developing new technologies to substitute the way customers shopwere helping to improve operations, back-room systems and Wal-Marts initiatory logistics network, speeding products to customers across the globe (para. 1).Wal-Marts technology department makes up of 3,500 employees in the United States and 2,000 globally (Wal-Mart, 2012). Wal-Mart (2012) states that a career in the technology department of the company will offer an employee exciting projects, investments in new technology, training, development, and exposure. Wal-Mart seems to offer careers such as Software eccentric Engineers, Sr. governance Engineers, Software Developers, and Project Managers. Salary Table This wage table is created for the job group and specific positions offered by Wal- Mart.To determine where an employee would fall within the salary category, the guidelines are list below Minimu m- This is the entry level, this means the person fulfills the lower limit job requirements. direct A- The employee has the get word and knowledge to master most of the duties in an independent manner. Usually, employees who fall in the Minimum and direct A tip are in their developmental phase be seduce they are still learning. Level B- This employee is highly cognize and his or her level of productivity exceeds the job requirements.Employees whose salary fall in an Level A and B are in the maturity phase because they defend mastered the skills. Maximum- The employee is continuous producing results that are above the requirements. Employees in the level B and Maximum are in the lead phase. They have demonstrated superior leadership skills and strong commitment to the organization. ProfileSoftware Quality EngineerMinimumLevel ALevel BMaximum Entry- Level $44,497$49,036$54,023$58,869 Mid- Level$54,498$60,978$68,095$76,144 Senior- Level$70,429$78,825$88,047$96,980ProfileSystems EngineerMinimumLevel ALevel BMaximum Entry- Level$46, 419$50, 843$55,702$62,267 Mid- Level$56,277$62,815$69,996$77,381 Senior -Level$69,723$77,109$85,221$94,213 ProfileSoftware DevelopersMinimumLevel ALevel BMaximum Entry- Level$41,844$47,393$53,488$59,942 Mid- Level$54,916$62,019$69,821$78,016 Senior- Level$71,549$79,009$87,202$95,965 ProfileProject ManagerMinimumLevel ALevel BMaximum Entry- Level $42,248$50,143$58,815$68,409 Mid- Level$57,560$66,878$77,113$88,150 Senior -Level$70,110$79,759$90,356$102,019 Placement PackagesProper compensation is essential for members, staff, and organization so that it is a field of education and schoolmaster title of Employment Placement Specialist. Often times there spate be an imbalance of effort in the workplace qualified candidates need to be met with sufficient recompense. Pay structures can vary by periodical wage, tier, grade, salary or levels. Wal-marts employee compensation will be raft at hourly rates depending on beginning and int ermediate experience level and transition to salary for at the lower-ranking and senior levels.The hurl of experience with respect to compensation is as follows Beginner Zero-Two Years of go steady higher(prenominal) teach Diploma or GED IntermediateTwo-Five Years of Experience high School Diploma or GED previous work experience on the job experience Junior Five-Ten Years of Experience High School Diploma or GED College Degree previous work experience on the job experience Senior 10+ Years of Experience High School Diploma or GED College Degree Masters level previous work experience on the job experience Compensation ranges will be discussed during interview process.Once a candidate is select, a clear wage will be set for beginning and intermediate positions. For junior and senior level a series of predetermined work related questions, including levels of education, work experiences, and qualifications will determine the salary offered. Employees will receive checkup benefit s and bonus or merit packages. Compensation levels and packages will be present to executive staff managers for approval or change, and incorporate requisite changes. In addition communication with HR is necessary for successful implementation and hard-hitting monitoring of process along with proper literature.Benefits Package As with any organization, Wal-Mart provides their employees with benefits packages that suit the needs of those who are involve. Some of the most popular benefits are those indirect and non of monetary value the way a salary or hourly pay is. Some of the much popular benefits are insurance, overtime, leave, flexible timing, and retirement. These options are more wide offered because of the long- term benefits of job stableness and employee retention. When an employee offers a benefit that they whitethorn use in the future or take advantage of more often he or she may be more likely to appreciate his or her position.Perhaps the most important indirect benef it that many people take advantage of is insurance. By having coverage through their employer an individual would not have to worry some finding a third party and paying more for health care costs. Insurance coverage, for instance, is often terribly expensive, so the company that offers health check and/or life insurance to employees as part of its benefits package is silk hatowing probative savings on those employees and their families (Reference for Business, n. d).If Wal-Mart were to offer their full- time employees coverage that was affordable and widely accepted it is believe that many of their employees would have a better experience with their jobs. Although benefit packages, direct or indirect, are offers to employees as a positive degree incentive they can create obstacles when accepted. For instance, if an employee considers salary, exempt, they are not required to be paid overtime even if he or she has worked the hours. This might cause a problem between the employe e and management because he or she are being overwork for no pay.Being paid overtime considers an indirect benefit because many employees, as with Wal-Mart, are not expected to work more than 40 hours a week. This same kind of issue may move up with an employee choosing to use the company insurance, which is a benefit for him or her. They may have needs, not covered in the policy that provides, and still have to pay more out-of- pocket than expected. The best way to avoid issues with indirect compensation is to be sure everything is explain, in writing, to the employee so that the employer is not at encounter in the future of acquiring a fair labor practice of law suit brought upon him or her.Wal-Mart should create a detailed benefits package for their employees to pack and sign in acknowledgement. This will ensure that everything is understood and that all questions regarding the indirect compensation are asked and addressed appropriately. Conclusion Compensation was once the foremost attraction to a workplace. People traveled the traditional roadways of education with the supreme destination of a first-rate job in their field with best reward.Today with elevated unemployment rates, a world crammed with terrorist, cancer, and other illness invasions, natural disasters, and plain old trigger happy citizens qualified, unqualified, and over qualified candidates alike are seeking two for the price of one. A job to make ends meet while enjoying life and all its positive proffers. Whatever the reason is necessary that organizations meet the needs of its qualified candidates with fair and appropriate compensation be hourly wage, tier, grade, salary or level. Employees which are fairly compensate coif better in the workplace and in their personal lives. Work is not mans punishment. It is his reward and his strength and his pleasure. George Sand ? References Cascio, W. (2010). Managing human resources (8th ed. ). New York , NY McGraw-Hill. Taylor, M. (2010). T he wall pathway journal. Retrieved from http//online. wsj. com/article/SB10001 424052748704358904575478133397664058. html Reference for Business (n. d). Employee benefits. Retrieved from http//www. referenceforbusiness. com/small/Di-Eq/Employee-Benefits. html Wal-Mart (2012). Retrieved from http//careers. walmart. com/careers-in-technology/ http//humanresources. about. com

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Applying Ethics in the Armed Forces

In Rob Reiners 1992 film, A Few Good custody, twain ethical go ones to life argon illustrated most profoundly in four main characters. Protagonist Lieutenant Daniel Kaffee, played by tom turkey Cruise, is in direct lesson contrast to the antagonist of the film, Colonel Nathan Jessep, played by Jack Nicholson. Kaffee effectively illustrates the importance of using the ethical framework of the habituals just approach while Jessep shows the flaws inherent in the chastity approach.The approach taken by Kaffee ensures that auberge is seamless in morality and that the Marines be not a group that is outside of either the law or common morality. Jessep, however, shows that virtues or ideals that commanders demand of subordinates in the host can fight the virtues of the common person and the common exhaustively.The remaining important two characters ar the conflicted and court-martialed Lance Corporal Harold W. Dawson and Private Lowden Downey. These ar Marines that rested thei r trust in their commander and must later learn to trust their attorney Kaffee and the oneness of military law.Dawson and Downey first come to the attention of Lieutenant Kaffee when the two atomic number 18 accused of causing the death of Private William Santiago. It was later discovered that the two were either directly or indirectly encouraged to initiate a Code Red, which is a form of Marine self-policing, where weaker member were shake up via different methods to become stronger, better Marines.The hands have allegedly stuffed a rag into the mouth of Private Santiago, resulting in his death. It becomes clear that the hands leave alone not speak of the crime in question, due to the honor canon of Marines.It later becomes clear, as well, that Gitmo is viewed as a very different enjoin with very different values. When the Marine Commander Jessep is accused of his role of creating such an immoral climate that results in a mans death, he states that he has a greater respons ibility than you can possibly fthm.Learning that the military culture may have a separate moral culture surrounded with different ethical mores, the question becomes are Dawson and Downey are morally blameworthy?Since Colonel Jessep appears to utilize the virtue approach while at the same time instilling an atmosphere of silence and brotherhood in his Marines at Gitmo, a small island apart from the rest of the world, to not follow his instructions would be unthinkable. To Jessep, his Marines are men above reproach and question and given the lying-in of protecting their fellow soldiers in a place that is always in danger of outside harm. The virtue approach that he instills in men like Dawson and Downey are to the effect that a person who has developed virtues allow for be naturally disposed to act in ways conformable with moral principles (Velasquez, et al, 1996).These virtues and principles were the cornerstone of the survival of the two men in question, they believed that on that point was no possible to way to refute or refuse whatsoever orders given by their virtuous commander. The virtues practiced and preached by Jessep were courage, strength, silence, and submission.Above all else these men learned, also, that they must always submit to their superiors in all they were asked to do. For this reason, these men are not entirely blameworthy, as if they would have refused direct orders, they would have wooly their virtue and in essence the very fabric of their lives. The moral questions of virtue and common good become the fabric of the court hearing.Lieutenant Kaffee concerns himself with the ethical cut of the common good approach to ethics and instills the positive points of virtue speculation by displaying compassion, fairness, and integrity. The Common Good approach essentially deals with an idea that various(prenominal) good is equated and ensured with public good and that individual, honorable traits should be shared as a community in a heal thy fashion.In this way, goodness, is not good if it is not shared. It can be said, then, that in order to recognize good to share it, we must also be able to recognize unstable or evil, in order to know how to counter it in a world of free will.Appeals to the common good urge us to view ourselves as members of the same community, reflecting on broad questions concerning the kind of society we want to become and how we are to achieve that society (Velasquez, et al, 1996).In this way Kaffee shows that Gitmo is a part of the larger world and that justness should be served to ensure that the military and the rest of the world can achieve fairness. Jessep is shown as culpable in his actions and Kaffee assures Dawson that a person does not need to have a staining on his or her arm to have honor.This phrase means so much to the Marine, who was simply following orders in a take mission. Had he not been subjected to the immorality of his commander, he would have been a good soldier. But , he cannot return to his duties and must then show honor in his effortless life, hopefully Kaffee has illustrated this honor and the uselessness of rank, faulty reasoning, and a simple tack on ones arm that does not assume morality.In closing, A Few Good Men in an excellent film to analyse in context of morals and ethical approaches. The two illustrated approaches of virtue and the common good can be seen as a recurring motion throughout the work. The actors all display their ideas and ideals of morality and a code of honor.The misguided and displaced ethical approaches and results are magnified to display their potential risks while the important and useful ethical approaches are displayed in memorable fashion with justice being more than a part of a court proceeding, it becomes a part of a new honor code for all affected.ReferencesSchickel, Richard. (December 14th, 1992). Close-Order incorrupt Drill. Time. 70.Velasquez, M., Andre, C., Shanks, T, Meyer, S. J. & Meyer M. (W inter, 1996). Thinking Ethically A Framework for honourable Decision Making in Issues in Ethics. 2-5.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Preparation of Acetanilide

Synthesis of Acetanilide Reaction O NH2 + H3C C O O C CH3 O N C CH3 H + H3C O C OH Aniline Acetic anhydride Acetanilide Acetic acid innovation Acetanilide is a useful precursor to many pharmaceuticals such as aceta instantophen and penicillin. Experimental Procedure. (Estimated time 1. 5 h. ) Unless otherwise noted, all manipulations should be done in the chemical fume hood. Place 100 L of aniline into a tared 10 X 75-mm test tube (standing in a small beaker or Erlenmeyer flask). Now add 0. -mL of distilled weewee with swirling, followed by 3 drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Add 10 mg of powdered decolorizing charcoal, or the pelletized form (Norit) to the resulting dissolvent. Fit the test tube with a cork nag and take it back to your hood. Gravity trickle this suspension (25-mm funnel fitted with fluted fast-grade separate paper see instructor) into a 3. 0-mL conical vial containing a magnetized spin vane. Wet the filter paper in advance with distilled water and blo t the excess water from the stem of the funnel.Use an concomitantal 0. 5 mL of distilled water to rinse the test tube and pass that through the filter paper into your vial. Your aniline hydrochloride solution is ready for reply. Assemble the apparatus as shown below CONICAL VIAL W/ MAGNETIC SPIN ne twork AND AIR CONDENSER Dissolve cl mg (1. 10 mmol) of sodium acetate trihydrate in 0. 5 mL of distilled water in a 10 X 17-mm test tube. Cap the tube and set the solution aside for use in the next step.Feature Article Free-Radical Bro momentationAdd, with stirring, 150 L of acetic anhydride to the solution of aniline hydrochloride, followed quickly by addition (Pasteur pipet) of the previously prepared solution of sodium acetate. Stir to thoroughly cock the reagents (5 min. ). You should see the formation of a white precipitate. Allow the reaction mixture to stand at room temperature for approximately 5 min and then place it in an ice bath for an additional 5-10 min to complete the c rystallization process.Collect the acetanilide product by filtration under decrease pressure using a Buchner funnel. Rinse the conical vial with two 0. 5-mL portions of distilled water and use the rinse to wash the collected filter cake. Characterization. number and determine the percent yield of the product. Obtain an IR spectrum using the summarize internal reflectance attachment. Take a 1H NMR of your product if at that place is not enough we will pool samples together. Take the melting position of the product and compare it to the literature value. BUCHNER FUNNEL

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Fortress of North Carolina’s History

Stretching almost 500 miles done compass north Carolina and Virginia, the profane cover Mountains stand like a fortress that conceal some of the oldest settlements of both pre-historic and early European settlement. Much of the 200-year-plus history of Appalachian culture becalm persists by simply discovering what remnants are left. In 1539, the first European expedition to venture into the begrimed cover region was led by drags Hernando de Soto, as his troops landed near Tampa Bay, Florida, with over 6 hundred soldiers and some additional men (mostly servants and slaves).Sotos expedition headed toward the Appalachian inner(a) with two goals &8212 to find adventure and to discover gold and other strange metals rumored to be in the region. Numerous Native American tribes (most of them Mississippian cultures) resisted the Spaniards advance (Olson 1988, p. 3). In May of 1540, Sotos expedition crossed the forbidding cover, probably guided by Native American scouts who knew of a well- established trail over the mountains. The expedition passed through the domain of the regions predominate tribe, the Cherokee, quickly and without difficulty.The reason behind must be that the tribe had already been decimated by smallpox or other European disease that spread to the Cherokee from coastal tribes, which likely had contracted that disease from preliminary European explorers. The Peachtree localise within the Cherokee county fits the description of the town of Guasili visited by Soto. The Peachtree site is geographically and topographically more accurately situated for the location of Guasili than all the Nacoochee or Etowah mounds, both of which had previously been considered as the site of Guasili.At present, this site in the midst of the Blue continue Mountains, where the feasibility of trails is limited, coincides more nearly with the judge situation as described by the chronicles than any other location. However, the hearty point in this report is not whether this is the site of the ancient town of Guasili as shows at least one trail of importance which passes the site, maculation several others are connected to it (Setzler, Jennings & Stewart 1941, p. 9).However, it was England and France that garnered the political see to it of easterly sexual union America, as many English settlers avoided exposure to the beseeching by moving from the northeastern Carolina and Virginia piedmont onto Cherokee lands in the Carolinas. In reaction, the Cherokee staged a serial publication of attacks on English settlements and fortifications, a situation which came to be known as the Cherokee War. The Cherokee won several of these contests, including one major victory, the capture of Fort Loudoun on the Little Tennessee River in 1760.In retaliation English soldiers under Major Hugh Waddell in 1761 stormed Cherokee towns along the Little Tennessee River suffering many casualties, the Cherokee pled for peace (Ehle 1988, p. 51). The Englis h, recognizing that they could not fight the Cherokee and the French at the same time, forged a new coalescence with the Cherokee. By 1763, this alliance had defeated the French and their Native American allies.English milkweed onlyterfly King George III rewarded the Cherokee for their loyalty by issuing the Proclamation of 1763, which established a boundary line int cease to prevent colonists from venturing onto Cherokee land. As the 19th century dawned in the Blue Ridge region with several kingdoms was convoluted in political squabbling over territorial boundaries. By 1800, the border surrounded by North Carolina and Virginia had already been surveyed, however North Carolinas border with the new state of Tennessee.As a cause of the popular revision of county lines in the North Carolina Blue Ridge, it prompted the slowing the development of stable and productive county regimens. The limited state cash in hand allocated to mountain counties were often rendered ineffective by a lack of fit administration within the counties. For decades after the Revolutionary War, counties in the Blue Ridge region not only were generally underrepresented in state politics, but also received little benefit from the federal government.Much of the western North Carolina landscape had been destroyed by the Revolutionary War, yet the state government of North Carolina put little effort toward boosting the regions economy. This was in part because the states economy was sluggish, the result of many factors a lack of harbors, the absence of an effective passage system by which to conduct trade within the state, high merchant marine tariffs, and an over-dependence on agriculture (McPherson 1988, p. 65-71). In the North Carolina General Assembly in 1823, the state allocated funds for a trans-mountain road, the Buncombe Turnpike.Completed in 1827, this road cogitate South Carolina with Tennessee, allowing safe wagon transport from Greenville, South Carolina, over the Nor th Carolina Blue Ridge, then through the valley of the French Broad River to Greeneville, Tennessee. A toll road, the Buncombe Turnpike profoundly affected the Blue Ridge communities through which it passed, providing economic relief to an impoverished region. Inns, provision outlets, and wagon-repair shops sprang up in a number of places along the turnpike. Owing to its strategic location along the turnpike, Asheville, North Carolina, grew quickly as a supply center for travelers.An essential tourist attraction also emerged along the turnpike Warm Springs, subsequent called Hot Springs. The Buncombe Turnpike not only benefited the communities through which it was routed, but also served the nation by providing eastern markets with a steady supply of agricultural products, poultry, and livestock raised to the west of the Blue Ridge (Dunaway 1996, p. 113-115). During the well-behaved War, no major battles took place in the North Carolina Blue Ridge because political loyalties with in the region were sharply divided, countless skirmishes occurred there.These conflicts were particularly frequent after July 1863, when the Confederate congress elected to position militia end-to-end the South in an attempt to capture draft evaders, return deserters to their commands, and control marauders who were opportunistically exploiting undermanned southern farms and villages. Confederate soldiers were soon present in the Blue Ridge, causing conflict wherever they encountered Union sympathizers. Thus, when the Civil War ended in 1865, marked the slowdown of political and social turmoil in the Blue Ridge region.The war had a profound impact on the region, as many people became disgusted at their ruined environs and disillusioned with their government. This is even worsened by the fact that political deputation of the Blue Ridge people during Reconstruction was marked by corruption. precisely after Reconstruction ended in the mid-1870s did state governments reorganize and actively participate in the economic development of the Blue Ridge. Finally, this improved the conditions in the region, which harnessed the forces of industrialization to come in. References Dunaway, Wilma A.(1996). The First American Frontier transmutation to Capitalism in Southern Appalachia, 1700-1860, Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press. Ehle, flush toilet (1988) Trail of Tears The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation, New York Anchor Press. McPherson, pack M. (1988). Battle Cry of Freedom The Civil War Era, New York Ballantine Books. Olson, T. (1998). Blue Ridge Folklife. Jackson, MS University Press of Mississippi. Setzler, F. M. , Jennings, J. D. , & Stewart, T. D. (1941). Peachtree Mound and Village Site, Cherokee County, North Carolina. Washington, DC