Thursday, February 28, 2019
These two metrical compositions show very different views of capital of the United Kingdom. Lines constitute upon Westminster Bridge, written by William Wordsworth, strings London in detail. He captures the beautified metropolis and expresses the im tump overibility of the morning. William Blake, who lived around the same time, wrote London which expresses the chaotic and corrupt aspect of London.Wordsworth describes the city in much detail. A sight so mournful in its majesty. The Earth has not anything to show to a greater extent fair. He expresses his true(p) emotional state ab pop the city from where he sees it.He goes on to pose the city and describe how it doth like a garment wear The strike of the morning silent, b be. He has captured the city in the morning when it is quiesce and in a sense almost naked with no unrivalled yet bustling through the streets, there are no skunk engulfed traffic jams or shouting street salesmen. There is only the sedateness of the morning.All the man made object glasss and buildings, such as ships, towers, domes, theatres and temples lie cave in unto the fields and to the sky. The man built objects remain where they were left not yet be riding habitd by Londoners.The atmosphere is sublime, the sun is however rising and soaking anything in its light, Never did sun more beautifully steep Neer saw I, never felt, a take root so deep the scene is so peaceful he is go throughing peace within himself.The natural body of the city, the river, is gliding in its avow devoid management, the way it wants the river glideth at its own sweet will Its free will is moving it naturally through the city as though it were the countryside. The river has also been personified to give more emphasis of its freedom. He is so overwhelmed by the atmosphere and calmness of the city. Dear God The very houses seem unaware everywhere he sees is not yet awake, again he has personified an object to give it more emphasis.His last( a) tilt is describing the city as a mighty heart that is lying still. The capital, like the giant utensil of a heart is just lying still.The aim from the poem is to describe the amazement he sees when looking over a massive city and seeing the calmness. He wants to express to others how peaceful and calm it makes him feel and pass that look on to the reader.The original two stanzas describe what the city is like, and what he sees around him. The sestet after this shows his personal response to what he has already described and how he feels about the city.Blake presents a much more depressing, ghoulish scene of London describing the corruptness of everything in the city. He is describing the attitudes and reds on in London that are normally never spoken about, the things which people may or may not know only which go on behind closed doors. A lot of repetition is used, contradictory in Wordsworths poem, to give emphasis to the points which he is trying to make. In every cry, of every Man, In every Infants cry of fear, In every phonate he only lists one example in each line but gives the effect of a lot of crying and pain and fear.He speaks in a first hand account throughout the poem I wander, I hear, and I meet. By speaking in the present tense it makes the reader more prone to think it is spill on here and now however old the poem may be.By beginning the first line with I wander thro each chartered street It makes it easier to visualise what he is describing because it is a first hand account. The chartered streets are each set out neatly and ordered, the chartered Thames is also very regulated and gives the impression of it being divided and bought and sold.He notices a mark in every award I meet Marks of wisdom, marks of woe. This evidence of scars of weakness and owing(p) sadness in faces contrasts with the peaceful and happy atmosphere Wordsworth gave to London.He hears mind-forgd manacles in crys of every man and Infants cry of fear he is re ferring to the fake, made up manacles that he cannot in truth hear but knows that something is wrong.His repetition of cry continues to the next stanza where he duologue of chimney-sweepers which are doing the dirty, hardest jobs and suffering for their work, an example of the depressed and morbid London.The description of the black church shows the soot taking over London and the church fit almost evil, involved with dirty money or becoming corrupt. level the church is starting to lose its faith. other large part of London life is also criticised, the hapless soldiers sigh Runs in blood down palace walls. Fighting is going on around the palace but going unnoticed, the palace is oblivious to the corruptness going on inside its own walls.He contrasts the third stanza with the 4th final stanza, not only the church and palace and the huge industries of London are corrupt the streets are also. Thro the midnight streets I hear How the youthful harlots curse there is a lot of prostitu tion going on in the streets of London but was something that wasnt spoken about. The STDs, or curses blasts the sweet born infants tear. Implying that prostitutes pass on STDs and then these in turn get passed on to the newborn babies of those who have any disease. Another example of a corrupt system in London, which now make the innocent. And blights with plagues the sexual union hearse. Sleeping with prostitutes while married destroys the whole point of marriage and then if the partner becomes pregnant another generation is born into corruption. The use of hearse shows how marriage is carried away as though dead and not interpreted seriously.The extremely regular meter helps put across the ordered ship canal he describes the beginning. These chartered and regulated ways soon give way to the examples of how corruption is slowly taking over the whole city, the government, the church, the palace and the streets.The first poem also used a regular meter, which, also worked salutar y in describing the city peacefully and happily.The two poems contrast greatly in not what they describe but how they describe it. Wordsworth has a much more calming poem, which in effect leaves the reader much more calm and peaceful. This is unlike Blakes who describes so much evil and chaos going on, his poem leaves the reader much more depressed and almost repel with how the people and industries of London are behaving.Their use of language is also quite a different, Wordsworths entire poem is full of description of beauty, ardent and glittering and full of splendour. He uses very grand descriptions of everything unlike the descriptions of Blake, which are quite harsh and blunt, blasts the new born infants tear, blights with plagues and runs in blood down palace walls.I did enjoy both poems but preferred the first, Lines composed upon Westminster because of its use of more soothing, happy descriptions of London. It made me feel much more relaxed after reading it whereas London left me feeling slightly more depressed and sad. Although this may have been the aim of Blakes poem I preferred Wordsworths poem because it was much calmer.
CASE 5 raise1. For each of the following specific canvas procedures, indicate the type of audit procedure it represents (1) inspection of records or documents, (2) inspection of tangible assets, (3) observation, (4) inquiry, (5) confirmation, (6) recalculation, (7) reperformance, (8) analytical procedures, and (9) scanning. a. move a written request to the guests customers requesting that they report the descend owed to the leaf node. a. proofi. Existence trying to determine if A/R is overstated. b. Examining double sales invoices for a period of two days before and after year-end to determine if sales ar recorded in the beseeming period. b. Inspection of document/recordsii. Cutoff make sure sales are recorded in proper period. c. Agreeing the total of the accounts receivable subsidiary book to the accounts receivable general ledger account. c. Reperformance-does total agree?iii. completenessd. Discussing the adequacy of the accommodation for doubtful accounts with the cr edit manager. d. Inquiryiv. Valuation and allocatione. Comparing the current-year gain profit percentage with the gross profit percentage for the last four years. e. Analytical proceduresv. Valuation and allocationf. Examining a new plastic protuberance machine to ensure that this major acquisition was received. f. Inspection of tangible assetsvi. realityg. Watching the clients warehouse personnel count the edged materials inventory. g. Observationvii. Existence/completenessh. Performing test counts of the warehouse personnels count of the raw material. h. Reperformanceviii. Valuation and allocationi. Obtaining a letter from the clients attorney indicating that there were no lawsuits in progress against the client. i. Confirmationix. Existence/valuation and allocationj. Tracing the prices used by the clients billing program for pricing sales invoices to the clients approved price list. j. Inspection of documentsx. accuracyk. Reviewing the general ledger for different adjusting entries. k. Scanningxi. Valuation and allocation.2. For each of the audit procedures listed in 1 above, draw the primary assertion being tested.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Effects of Drugs on philia come off Michelle Dilgard Undergraduate disciple Education Major Biology Concentration Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38505 December 3, 2006 skirt of Con disco biscuitts Page Abstract 1 Key Words 2 insane asylum3-6 Methods and Materials7-8 Expected Results and Benefits 9 Results 10-11 Discussion12 Conclusion13 Literature Cited 14-15 Abstract This prove is designed to keep out how drugs affect partiality come out. This examine go forth use water system flea in order to monitor the effects certain drugs confound on affectionateness judge.I get out observe the changes in optic step of water flea when overt to caffeine, Ibuprofen, intoxicant, and Nicotine. I depart have several separate samples of water flea in my study. Each community lead be exposed to a distinct drug and observe how the intent rate of the daphnia changes accordingly. I turn over the water flea warmness rate ordain increase when the cyclops atomic number 18 exposed to caffeine and Nicotine because both of these drugs argon stimulants. I believe the water flea heart rate will decrease and slow carry out when the water flea are exposed to Ibuprofen and Alcohol.This investigate will carry not only the effects of these drugs on cyclops scarcely in any case what they likely do to the benignant body when it is exposed. cyclops are utilize as a humane alternative to mankind when performing this character of experiment. The effects on the cyclops will be really similar to how the human heart would react if exposed to these drugs. Key Words Nicotine Alcohol caffein Ibuprofen Effects of Drugs daphnia Magna Heart rate Drugs Heart Introduction My experiment deals with the affects of diametrical drugs on the heart rate of daphnia. I will focus on the daphnias body itself first.Then I will give information pertaining to the drugs utilise Caffeiene, Ibuprofen, Alcohol, and Nicotine. Daphnia are small crustaceans t hat stay in the water. They are unremarkably called water fleas. Daphnia are fresh water zooplankton and consume phytoplankton and some other(a) zooplankton as well. The daphnias bodies are transparent and their knowledgeable structures green goddess easily be seen. The heart is the internal organ I focuse on within the daphnia. The heart can be easily seen within the body cavity of the daphnia which do it easy to find and easy to count the heartbeat (Villegas-Navarro 2003).Caffeine is a very important drug to consider because 90% of American consumes caffeine on a daily basis. Half of all American consume more(prenominal) than 300 mg of caffeine a day which makes it Americas most consumed drug to date. Caffeine is found in coffee, soda, tea, chocolate, etc. Caffeine is known as trimethylxanthine in the medical community. Caffeine can be used as a cardiac stimulant and also as a mild diuretic. Cardiac stimulants increase the heart rate, and diuretics increase water system pro duction. Caffeine is a very addictive drug and operates just equal amphetamines such as cocaine and heroin (Nehlig 1992).Caffeine not only stimulates the heart of humans but also the heart of daphnia (Foster 1997). Ibuprofen is commonly used to relieve pain, tenderness, swelling and stiffness caused by arthritis. It is also used to relieve mild to moderate pain in the body and muffle fever. Ibuprofen is called a NSAIDs. It works by stopping the bodys production of a substance that causes pain, fever, and inflammation. Ibuprofen is most practically used to treat arthritis (Cluevers 2004). Alcohol is often used as a reply in medical drugs, because of its low toxicity and ability to dissolve non-polar substances.Ethanol is often used as an antiseptic, to disinfect the skin before injections are given. When touch on correctly Alcohol is drunk in recreation. Alcohol affects the body as a nervous system depressant (Wong 1997). Nicotine like caffeine is a stimulant. This stimulant is found in cigarettes. Cigarettes contain 8 to 20 milligrams of nicotine but when smoke only 1 mg of nicotine actually enters the body. Nicotine can have two effects on the body, it can relax a perso or it can stimulate a person, this is based on the amount and the system of smoking or nicotine intake.Nicotine works by causing a releas of adrenaline into the body. Statement of Problem How do certain drugs affect heart rate? Objective/Hypothesis Statement This experiment is designed to find out how drugs affect heart rate. This experiment will use Daphnia in order to monitor the effects certain drugs have on heart rates. I will observe the changes in heart rate of Daphnia when exposed to Caffeine, Ibuprofen, Alcohol, and Nicotine. I will have several separate samples of Daphnia in my study.Each community will be exposed to a different drug and observe how the heart rate of the Daphnia changes accordingly. i. e. Foster 1997 I think over that the Daphnia heart rate will increase when the Daphnia are exposed to Caffeine and Nicotine because both of these drugs are stimulants. I hypothesize the Daphnia heart rate will decrease and slow pig when the Daphnia are exposed to Ibuprofen and Alcohol. The null hypothesis to this is I hypothesize that drugs will have no effect on the Daphnias heart rate. Methods and Materials Data Form Resting Heart enjoin Heart consider 1 Heart set up 2 Heart Rate 3 Alcohol 1 Alcohol 2 Alcohol 3 Ibuprofen 1 Ibuprofen 2 Ibuprofen 3 Caffeine 1 Caffeine 2 Caffeine 3 Nicotine 1 Nicotine 2 Nicotine 3 ProcedureI used a modified version of the experiment performed by Jasmine Kamai and Varner Allbrett when they studied the effects of Kava on the heart rate of Daphnia. My subroutine is as follows Before beginning my experiment I must immingle the drug solutions to be used. First I will dissolve isobutylphenyl propionic acid and caffeine tablets into a solution of wat er in two different containers, that I will later determine what strength to make each. I will also tear open cigarettes and mix the tobacco with water and let sit for 24 hours after which I will drainage the water off into a container which will make up my nicotine solution. For intoxicant I will just mix vodka and water to a desire strength in a 4th container. Next I will cipher out a daphnia and drop it onto a sailing to be viewed under a microscope.I will record its convention heart rate. Next I will add a drop of the inebriant solution and over the next 5 tenuouss I will record the changes in heart rate after one molybdenum of exposure, 3 minutes of exposure and then 5 minutes of exposure. aft(prenominal) recording my results I will dispose of this Daphnia. I will do this same portion of the experiment with two more daphnia. I will then continue with this procedure while using the other common chord drugs. I plan to use the lab facilities in the Biology twist on Ten nessee Techs Campus. Along with most of their lab equipment including microscope, slides, vials, Petri dishes, droppers and other equipment. Materials Water Depression SlidesCover slips Droppers Daphnia Magna Microscope Watch Petri Dishes Daphnia Anatomy graph Cigarettes 80 proof vodka No-dos Ibuprofen tablets Expected Results and Benefits After performing this experiment I expect to find that the Daphnias heart rates will increase with Nicotine and Caffeine because both of these drugs are stimulants and that the Daphnias heart rates will decrease with Alcohol and Ibuprofen solution. This experiment will show not only the effects of these drugs on Daphnia but also what they similarly do to the human body when it is exposed. Daphnia are used as a humane alternative to Humans when performing this type of experiment. Results Normal w/Caffeine w/Alcohol 84 100 89 80 102 85 86 one hundred five 90 88 109 91 82 109 88 84 103 85 90 110 93 86 106 89 80 90 84 84 88 87 Heart Rate o f Daphnia when exposed to Caffeine and Alcohol Change in Heart Rate of Daphnia when exposed to Caffeine Change in Heart Rate of Daphnia when exposed to Alcohol Discussion After performing my experiment I found that Daphnia Magna heart rate greatly increases when exposed to Caffeine. Caffeine is a stimulant and should produce that affect (Nehlig 1992). Caffeine has similar affects on humans (Foster 1997).The heart rate increase anywhere from 10 to 20 beats per minute. As seen in my data table the heart beats sometimes jumped from a normal heartbeat in the 80s to a heartbeat in the 100s when exposed to caffeine. Gerald Adams also found the same result when he tested his hypothesis. I also found that Daphnias heart rate slightly increased with the exposure to Alcohol. The heart rate does not have as drastic a change when exposed to Alcohol as it did when exposed to Caffeine. The heart rates just increased by about 5 to 10 beats per minute. As seen in my data table the heart beats only jumped from a normal heartbeat in the 80s to a heartbeat in the 90s when exposed to Alcohol.This was disproved by several different experiments (Wong 1997). Wong found that the heart rate of daphnia decreased. Since alcohol is a depressant it should have lowered the heart rate of daphnia. I feel that the increase in stress on the Daphnia whitethorn have called this time of increase. When Daphnia is exposed to Nicotine and Ibuprofen, the heart rate of the daphnia could not be seen as any different. (Sollman 1999). Although Cluevers said that there should be a change in the heart rate (Cluevers 2004). Conclusion In conclusion I have determined that the heart rate of Daphnia can be affected by adding different drugs. Daphnia heart rate increased by ten to twenty beats per minute when exposed to Caffeine.Daphnia heart rate increased by five to ten beats per minute when exposed to Alcohol. Unfortunately the results for Ibuprofen and Nicotine could not be seen. There was not enough eviden ce to determine how the Heart rate changed when the Daphnia were exposed to Ibuprofen and Nicotine. By doing this experiment it can be assumed that the some of the same reactions could be found if Humans are exposed to these Drugs. Literature Cited Cluevers, Michael. 2004. Mixture toxicity of the anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and acetylsalicylic acid. Exotoxicology an Environmental base hit 59 309-315. Foster, Rachel. 1997. A stroboscopic method to investigate the effect of caffeine on Daphnia hear rate.Journal of Biological Education 31 253-255. Nehlig, A. , J. L. Daval, and G. Debry. 1992. Caffeine and the rudimentary nervous system mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. PubMed. com. Villegas-Navarro, Arturo, Esperanza L. Ross, and Jose L. Reyes. 2003. The heart of Daphnia magna effects of iv cardioactive drugs. Comparative Biochemisty and Physiology Part C Toxicology and Pharmacology 136C 127-134 Wong, Diana C. L. , Philip B. Dorn, and Eric Y. Chai. 1997. Acute toxicity and structure-activity relationships of ix alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to fathead minnow and Daphnia magna. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16 1970-1976. . Appendix Normal w/Caffeine w/Alcohol 84 100 89 80 102 85 86 105 90 88 109 91 82 109 88 84 103 85 90 110 93 86 106 89 80 90 84 84 88 87
Balanced literacy is a lesson designed to assist any bookmans learn to order and compose efficaciously. Teachers no longer hold to utilize either whole lingual colloquy programming instructional schemes found preponderantly on phonics. Alternatively, equilibrise literacy involves non precisely whole lingual talk and phonics, but several(prenominal) different positions and attacks ( Tompkins, 2003 p.15 ) . The architectural programme stands steadfastly on the premiss that all pupils can larn to allege and compose. This balance between edition and theme allows pupils to have the instruction require in order to make grade grade position, while leting pupils to break down at an instructional degree that is non thwarting for them.Balanced Literacy is a conjectural account for learning kids in a child-centered schoolroom, supplying legion(predicate) chances for brisk life development and composing experiences. It is originally based on the crude Zealand Model for Literacy and study retrieval literacy theoretical accounts authored Marie Clay ( 1885 ) , studied and broadened by Irene Fountas, and Gay Su Pennell ( 1999 ) . Children read and write each twenty-four hours independently and in group scenes ( both queen-sized and little ) . Balanced Literacy schoolrooms focus on four different types of rendering experiences a ) version aloud, B ) sh atomic number 18d out interpret whole category, degree Celsius ) guided class period little group, and vitamin D ) independent reading. Students besides participate in day-to-day authorship activities that agree with their reading experiences. The four types of authorship experiences are a ) shared composing whole category, B ) interactive composing whole category or little group, degree Celsius ) composing workshop little or single, and vitamin D ) independent composing. Additionally, during many day-to-day reading and composing experiences, kids are taught or so letters, sounds, words an d how they work. Listening and talking are besides emphasized in this incorporated linguistic communion attack. every literacy education and assignments are vigilant utilizing appropriate methodological analysiss that allow instructors to guarantee fidelity of academic glut criterions every objet dart undecomposed as linguistic converse aims for address Arts direction. Surveies agree that balanced literacy should besides embrace phonics, including nail down ph anemic consciousness, along with vocabulary acquisition, reading eloquence and comprehension.Harmonizing to Froehlich ( 2009 ) , instructors implementing Balanced Literacy persona an incorporate attack to learning linguistic confabulation humanistic disciplines. Balanced Literacy consists of a figure of elements that provide an copiousness of reading and composing on a day-to-day footing and are back uply implemented utilizing cross-curricular methodological analysis. These accredited chances for reading and comp osing are arranged on a continuum based on more or less teacher tide over. Some reading and authorship undertakings are modeled by the instructors and other(a)s are accomplished with the support of the instructor, taking to a few that are d oneness independently by the kid. Not merely does balanced literacy encourage and increase kids s reading and composing accomplishments, nevertheless, the primary aim is that pupils will larn to bask reading and authorship, therefore cultivating a deeper sense of the value of literacy.Harmonizing to Pressley ( 2001 ) , and was commissioned by the discipline Reading Conference, most reading platforms in simple schools countrywide use a balanced attack to literacy, although due to be limitations, some instructors in smaller communities may hold small or no entrance fee to published literacy scheduling.Reading recovery/ Descubriendo La LecturaHarmonizing to Clay ( 1993 ) , Reading Recovery is an early intervention jut out for first class rea ding direction that focuses on tutoring the lowest 20 per centum of fightingreaders. Reading Recovery is comprised of phonemic consciousness, phonics, vocabulary, eloquence, comprehension, composing, unwritten linguistic communication, motive, and independency instructional constituents. Phonicss, phonemic consciousness, vocabulary, eloquence, comprehension, authorship, and unwritten linguistic communication are internal for favourable literacy results. The Reading Recovery aim consists of day-to-day 30 minute lessons by a instructor instruct in the technique. The design includes reading known floors, reading a narrative that was read the twenty-four hours before, composing a narrative, reading with sentence strips, reading new narratives, and appraisal. Assessment is an of import characteristic of this plan. Ashdown and Simic ( 2007 ) found assorted consequences when analyzing modified side of meat proficient pupils utilizing Reading Recovery plan as a intercession. Ashdown and Simic ( 2007 ) found that pupils with exceptional side of meat proficiency that employ Reading Recovery for over six months did score higher on achievement appraisals. Descubriendo La Lectura ( DLL ) is merely the Spanish version of Reading Recovery and consists of the same instructional constituents and day-to-day lessons ( Chueng and Slavin, 2005 ) . Merely one survey Descubriendo la Lectura of was conclusive for healthy literacy patterns. Other surveies reviewed by Chueng and Slavin ( 2005 ) did non ensue in positive literacy consequences for pupils whose L1 was Spanish. Overall, as a consequence of these surveies, one can infer that Reading Recovery and Descubriendo la Lectura ( DLL ) may non be hard-hitting balanced literacy plans for face linguistic communication scholars if merely implemented over a short sum of clip. Those pupils that utilise Reading Recovery and Descubriendo la Lectura ( DLL ) as an intercession for over several months had positive discernible re sults. advantage for AllSlavin and Madden ( 1999 ) studied the encompassing reading planSuccess for All and found it to be a structured and effectual course of study theoretical account for Kindergarten and kickoff grade pupils. Success for All provides early literacy using direct reading comprehension direction, methodical phonics direction, concerted acquisition schemes every smudge good as full support for instructors including considerable professional development. Success for All besides incorporates one-to-one tutoring for fighting pupils every bit good frequent pupil appraisals and grouping and regrouping by ability degree. Reading is ad hocally taught in one 90 minute block ( Slavin and Madden, 1999 Chueng and Slavin 2005 ) .For English linguistic communication scholars ( ELLs ) , Success or All has two instructional plans. Exito Para Todas is the Spanish bilingual theoretical account. This plan teaches reading to pupils in Spanish for classs one and two and in 3rd grad e passages pupils to English-only direction ( Chueng and Slavin, 2005 ) . The other plan is an English linguistic communication development ( ELD ) method, which teaches pupils in English with a focal point on linked vocabulary from reading texts and extra supports ( Chueng and Slavin, 2005 ) .Harmonizing to Chueng and Slavin, ( 2005 ) surveies in California and Texas utilizing Exito Para Todas paradenstrated important effort mark differences on the Spanish Woodcock Assessments for Word Attack, Word Identification, and Passage Reading Comprehension for indiscriminately selected pupils utilizing the bilingual plan compared to pupils from schools that used other reading instructional methods. The overall average reading degree addition was.41 of one class degree for those kids utilizing Exito Para Todas. the Success for All plans were positive.Arizona, California, Pennsylvania, and Texas conducted similar surveies with Success for All ELD reading plan and harmonizing to Livingston a nd Flaherty ( 1997 ) the average reading degree increased by 0.37 of a grade degree. Cheung and Slavin ( 2005 ) further province that other researcher findings did non show pupil accomplishment as systematically for English linguistic communication scholars, nevertheless, most of the reappraisals rated both reading plans as effectual and positive. Educators are aware of the fact non every literacy plan will be conquestful for every pupil. Therefore, it is indispensable that instructors entree balanced literacy plans that engage pupil acquisition by implementing diverse methods that address larning manner penchants ( Thompkins, 2003 ) . claim worryCheung and Slaving ( 2005 ) every bit good as Dahl and Freppon ( 1998 ) evaluated say Instruction ( DI ) with respect to effectual literacy direction for English linguistic communication scholars. Direct Instruction ( DI ) has been around for many old ages and is by and large implemented by the instructor for all pupils in the schoolroom and non purely limited specifically to English linguistic communication scholars. Direct Instruction ( DI ) provides all-embracing phonics, paced reading direction, and frequent pupil appraisal. It was originally designed for fighting readers. Direct Instruction ( DI ) is a systematic attack and as with a oecumenical plan provides teacher support and preparation. It often used with pupils whose primary linguistic communication ( L1 ) is non English and is frequently incorporated into reading plans by big companies such as Harcort School Publishers. Studies show that it is non a balanced literacy plan as DI overemphasizes phonics direction and frequently this can be hard English linguistic communication scholars. However, Direct Direction can be a successful attack when several other reading methods and schemes are used in concurrence with it and it is used for over a two twelvemonth period ( Abott, Greenwood, and Kamps, 2007 Chueng and Slavin, 2005 Slavin and Madden, 1999 ) .Ph onicss PlansReasonably Phonics uses phonics as its cardinal reading foundation. Reasonably Phonics intercession dressed ores on pupils larning missive formation, missive sounds, blending, placing sounds in words, and spelling words. This plan did non show effectual and balanced literacy for English linguistic communication scholars and it is non highly recommended for pupils with limited English proficiency.Libros is another literacy intercession plan developed for physical exercise kindergarten categories. Teachers would direct place narratives in Spanish after they previewed and discussed the narrative soundly with their category. Parents were besides shown a picture of to promote parents to read with their kids every bit good as discuss the narrative with them. Students would have books in Spanish to take place and read with their parents. Results for pupils utilizing Libros for the full school twelvemonth, scored higher on missive and word idenfication, nevertheless, reading c omprehension tonss were non as positive ( Chueng and Slavin 2005 Slavin and Madden, 1999 ) . genius can reason that Libros focuses on phonics direction because the reading comprehension tonss did non demo a pronounced addition among English linguistic communication scholars. Besides, this plan appears to be slightly limited, because the cardinal thought is the books the pupils take place to read and pattern. This seems like a slightly auxiliary reading plan, alternatively of complete balanced literacy for English linguistic communication scholars.DecisionAfter analyzing all of the research about the aforesaid reading plans for English linguistic communication scholars, I conclude that balanced literacy plans are reading intercession plans that resulted in more positive information among several different research workers. Obviously, Clay, Fountas, Pennell, and Slavin are some of most good known literacy research workers in the field. Besides, Slavin has updated his original reappr aisal of effectual literacy plans from his first in 1999 to the most recent and blanket(prenominal) reappraisal of literacy plans in 2005.One concluding idea about balanced literacy plans, is teacher entree. I think it is It is critical that instructors have every bit much information about effectual balanced literacy plans for English linguistic communication scholars. Previously, I had entree to the literacy plan Success for All and I truly saw mensurable betterment among the pupils who were English linguistic communication scholars. Unfortunately, we do non utilize Success for All at the school where I presently teach. I do believe it is indispensable for instructors and decision makers to mean that while one plan may work for a specific pupil, it will non needfully increase literacy accomplishments for another. Educators need to be aware to immix as many reading schemes as possible in their direction. I besides believe that concerted acquisition schemes will heighten any lite racy plan and by utilizing concerted acquisition with reading plans, balance and success will better and bring forth favourable literacy accomplishments. Another indispensable scheme for learning English linguistic communication scholars is seeking on Internet web sites such as Frohlich s ( updated 2009 ) that has so many different balanced literacy learning AIDSs that can be downloaded and printed for instructors to use.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
What is the classical school of criminology and what argon the main points of this theory. Cesare Beccaria was a attain regainer of this theory and is also considered by some the founder of advance(a) criminology. Classical school of criminology theory placed emphasis on forgiving rationality and destitute will. Second off this theory unlike the others researched the cake of disgust non the criminals. Also, according to this theory, crime was the result of batch choosing to do so with the possibility of the consequences be evident. The classical theory of Beccaria and others is what our constitution was found upon so as you coffin nail see, it has great significance to our society.Humans are believed to act in their own best interests. We have our own free will and we also have a rational side to us. This was the groundwork of the classical criminology theory. Being the case, this theory emphasized jurisprudences that would stress non criminal actions would be in the bes t interest of society. Punishment and disapproverence was an important promoter in this theory because the penalization had to reinforce deterrence so people could rationalize the self benefits of criminality from the consequences of criminality.Due to the fact that Beccaria believed that bad laws light-emitting diode to criminality, a lot of his emphasis was base on forestalling crime and fleet punishment when crime was saddleted. In his eyes punishment is justified however to defend the peace of society and that society would be motivated to delay by it. This meant that punishment was to treat the criminal, incapacitate them from repeating criminal acts and deter would be criminals. To incorporate these ideas Beccaria believed that punishment should be swift, certain, deterrence, proportional to the crime, neat and based on positive and negative reinforcement. Swift punishment is believed to deter the most. agree to Beccaria, when punishment promptly follows the crime, t he punishment will be reinforced in a persons mind before they act criminally. A certain punishment is also a form of deterrence because the less would be criminals think they can get a charge with, the more they will view in the consequences of that action. General deterrence is used for the purpose of setting and theoretical account for society. Laws should also be clear I definingcrimes. This will prevent judges from interpreting the law and only allow them to decide if the law has been broken. Lastly, the most effective way in preventing crime is to enact clear laws that reward good behavior and punish bad behavior.The theory of dimension is another relationship between crime and punishment. The belief is that punishment can only deter if the punishment is proportional to the crime. The punishment must combine with the crime in that the more practiced the crime the more serious the punishment. Lastly, punishment existed to deter people from committing crime and the punishm ent should out way the gains of committing the act. Beccaria was a believer in that crime was due to unjust laws not because of the people committing the acts. fit the crime. He argued that if the punishment was more excessive than the crime it would be an abuse of power by the state and it would also crap more crime.Beccaria was considered the founder of the classical school of criminology. He emphasized human beings rationality and free will, preventing crime and deterrence of crime. The classical criminology theory was divers(prenominal) from the other theories that were introduced to us because it focused on the reasons why people commit crimes not on the deviant behaviors themselves. Beccaria and his followers had a great partake on our country it is what our constitution and current laws are based upon.profit Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Cesare Beccaria.http//www.utm.edu/research/iep/b/beccaria.htmKeel, Robert. Rational Choice and Deterrence system. http//www.umsl.edu/rkee l/200/ratchoc.htmlSiegel, Larry. Criminology. Canada Thomas Learning, Inc, 2003.
some(prenominal) of these writers encounter and more(prenominal) gravely, live amongst the Native good deal of the Americas as captives at iodine point of their lives. However, each experience different situations and go slightly representing those situations in their writing in two completely dissimilar narratives. severally of them enter into captivity with distinctive roles-?Rowland as a Puritanical arrive and Caber De vacate as a Spanish Imperial venturer. Railroadings overall sense of smell in her narrative eject be described as enlighten in the sense that A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs..Mary Rowland basin be use upd as a example for readers, especially in her overall belief in deity. She says, met the Lord still showed grace to me, and upheld me and as He wounded me with one hand, so he ameliorate me with a nonher (Bam and Levine 261). Rowland demonstrates the recurring theme of the centrality of perfection and HIS forget In this one sen tence which could possibly be used to correspond to the entirety of her captivity. discover her use of a dichotomy in the sentence. She is wounded. But then, she is healed. With what?With perfections Hand. This exhibits Railroadings belief that God Lana everything good and bad. It can also be concluded that Railroadings narrative shows the more generalized view of the Puritan beliefs. Also, note Railroadings tone in this passing game of the narrative that can be associated to the good and bad that God plans. weakened carries a more despaired tone while healed holds a more hopeful tone-?the hope In God that He will enrapture her out of her despair. Rowland continuously revisits the idea of Gods centrality in her whole narrative.She says I reach thought since of the wonderful goodness of God to me in reserving me in the use of my reason and senses in that distressed time, that I did not wicked and crazy means to destruction my own miser commensurate life When I came I asked them what they had done with It then they told me It was upon the hill. Then they went and showed me where It was, where I saw the ground was fresh digger, and there they told me they had hide it. There I left that child in the wilderness, and must(prenominal) commit it, and myself also in this wilderness condition, to Him who is above all.God having taken away this dear child (Nina and Levine 261-262). As a Christian and other, this must have affected Rowland severely. The thought of her dead baby being buried by soulless savages without any proper Christian funeral rites probably shadowed her, besides nonetheless, she refuses to end her miserable life and quickly punishment from God, just also notes that through and after captivity, God saved her. Alva Ounce Caber De Visas poster of his captivity with the Karakas Indians and several other Indian tribes also has this presence of God that is explicit in Railroadings narrative.The Relation constantly addresses God our Lord. He says in is dedication, Although everyone wants what advantage may be gained from ambition and action, we see everywhere prominent inequalities of fortune, brought about not by conduct but by accident, and not through anybody fault but as the will of God (Bam and Levin 44). It is important to make a note of the fact that Caber De desert was an imperial explorer for Spain under Painful De Narrate.The reason for his expedition in America was to lay claim the Florida territory for Spain, but the expedition failed greatly and led to the captivity of Caber De Vacate and three other men. Like Rowland, Caber De Vacate returns to civilization. Although he does not nominate to his captivity as punishment from God, he does mention his incarceration as nobodys fault but as the will of God. It can be implied that Caber De Vacate says this to escape any actual punishment he may capture from the Spanish crown. After all, the expedition was funded with the expectation of proceeds I. . Go ld and silver. He mentions at the end of the dedication, l beg that it may be genuine as homage, since it is the most once could bring who returned thence naked (Bam and Levine 45). The fundamental tone in this sentence is desperation-?desperation in that sense that the top executive accept his narrative and desperation, and even perhaps hope, that God will release him from any forthcoming punishment made from the king. Caber De Vacate begs that his account can be viewed as a gift while claiming the role of Gods will in his captivity.Thus, he implies that his nakedness in both appearance and profit be seen as something God himself determined. Caber De Vacate says, Eating the dogs seemed to give us strength enough to go forward so commending ourselves to the audience of God our Lord, we took leave of our hosts, who pointed out the way to other nearby who spoke their style (Bam and Levine 48). Like Rowland who put her faith in God, Caber De Vacate, along with the other survivor s, commends himself to Gods guidance. However, he actually comes to respect the Indians as he resides with them which is expressed near the end of The Relation.He sh bes To the last I could not convince the Indians that we were of the same people as the Christian Slavers We ordered them to fear no more After we had reject the Indians in ace and thanked them for their toil in our behalf The Christians took us through the forests and wastes so we would not communicate with the natives and would neither see nor learn of their crafty final cause afoot. Thus we often misjudge the motives of men we thought we had effected the Indians liberty, when the Christians were but poising to pounce (Bam and Levine 51).Notice how Caber De Vacate refers to the Spanish as the Christians. He does not complicate himself in the passage as one of the Christians probably because he has been able to tolerate and come to respect he native people. He does accent to persuade the Indians that he is of the same race simply for their safety. He says leper bade his interpreter tell the Indians that we were members of his race who had been long lost The Indians nonrecreational no attention to this. Conferring to themselves, they replied that the Christians had lied E healed and lanced we coveted cypher but gave whatever we were given, while they robbed whomever they found and bestowed nothing on anyone (Bam and Nina 50) This differs from Rowland who on a regular basis refers to the Native Americans as savages. In Caber De Visas text, it is these Christians who appear to be the savages. The tone in this passage is almost regretful. Caber De Visas use of dichotomies in this passage iterates the sadness on the idea that these supposed holy men ravage on helpless, detached Indians according to Gods will.This is exactly the opposite in Railroadings text where she views the native people as nothing short of barbaric like in the representative where her baby is improperly buried according to Christian guidelines. However, there are instances where Rowland comes to note the molarities between the Englishmen and the Indians. She also comes to somewhat embrace the savagery of the Indians when she take in bears meat and finds it savory and pleasant rather than repulsive as Caber De Vacate does when he eats dog meat and prances around naked.
Monday, February 25, 2019
The Character of Blanche in A Streetcar Named require Blanche, Stellas is by far the most complex character of the play. An intelligent and mad woman who values lit epochture and the creativity of the human imagination, she is also emotionally traumatised and repressed. This gives license for her take imagination to become a haven for her pain. unitary senses that Blanches own view of her real self as opposed to her standard self has been increasingly blurred everyplace the years until it is some meters grueling for her to tell the difference.It is a challenge to find the key to Blanches melancholy nevertheless perhaps the roots of her trauma lie in her early marriage. She was stalk by her inability to help or understand her young, troubled keep up and that she has tortured herself for it ever since. Her drive to lose herself in the kindness of strangers business leader also be understood from this period in that her sense of authorization in her own feminine attraction was shaken by the knowledge of her husbands homosexuality and she is driven to use her sexual charms to attract men all over and over. Yet, beneath all this, there is a desire to find a companion, to find fulfilment in love.She is not successful because of her refusal or inability to face reality, in her circumstances and in herself. Blanche has a hard duration confronting her mixed desires and therefore is never able to sort them out and hand out with them. She wants a cultured man but is often subconsciously attracted to slopped, elementary male characters, perhaps a response to her marriage with a cultured, subtile man which ended in disaster. So although Blanche dislikes Stanley as a person, she is displace to him as a type of man who is resoundingly heterosexual and who is strong enough to protect her from an increasingly harsh world.This attends to be the reason for her instruct relationship with Mitch, but it becomes clear to Blanche that Stanley is the dominant mal e here and she begins to agnise that fact. When Blanche tells the operator in Scene Ten that she is caught in a trap, set forth of her realises she has set herself up via her desires. Stanley is the embodiment of what she needs, yet detests, and, because of her sister, can never have. subsequently Stanley has stripped her of her self-respect in this scene, she becomes desperate, unable to retreat to her fantasies and so this deeper mold of her desires is revealed.You can read alsoSimilarities and Conflicts in a Streetcar Named intrustYet, Blanche does not know how to face these feelings and she senses to give into them could be disastrous for her. As Stanley advances towards her, she tells him, I warn you, dont, Im in danger but Stanley has made current that this time there is no where for her to hide. In her final act, she silently acknowledges that her own desires have also led to this date. It is interesting that neither Blanche nor Stanley seriously seem to consider Stel la as Scene Ten reaches a climax. They some(prenominal) deal that somehow they atomic number 18 drawn together and also repelled by forces that are directly between them and that have little to do with Stella.Things come to a head so quickly that it is as if tensions have been bubblingore emotionally and mentally crippled than before. Yet, Stanley and by extension Stella, are not clear victors. standardized Blanche, Stanley is also revealed to be capable of deceit, he does not admit the the true of what happened between him and Blanche to his friends, to Stella, and maybe not even to himself. Stella makes a conscious ratiocination to believe Stanley instead of her sister because to do otherwise would be both emotionally and economically difficult with a untried baby so she, too, is engaging in a measure of self-deception.Stanley survives because of sheer physical presence, not because of any innate superiority. Blanche suffers overall on many fronts in her new environment, bu t in conclusion although integrity does feel pity for Blanche she has to a large extent with her own weaknesses brought her own downfall. Blanche can not contest in the new household she is placed in Stella has already claimed her grunge and ultimately will choose her marriage over her sister.Blanches past erupts into the hold and without at the forefront is the contradiction to the facade Blanche has put up over her sexual needs and desires. So confused is Blanche over sex the one weapon she has to gain a husband her sexuality she can no longer use. In the end Blanche is living in a era which was smashed a hundred years before this moment of time in the play. This era Blanche lameness in is the gentile society of Confederate America with wealthy European colonials engaging politely in society. For Blanche this refusal to allow go of the past and adjust to her new surroundings and the
At the residual of our starts, we all exigency to be able to feel as though the disembodied spirit that we do itd on earth was a full(a) and quick one. This seems like the ultimate address that we strive for every day. However, the question arises as to how we can meet this goal by the way that we live our daily lives. If you were to ask random tribe on the street how they live a ingenuous and capable action, individually person would give you a different answer. This is because everyone has a different military position of what is important to make this intent a nifty and elated liveness, and everyone has the rig to make this emotional state possible.What would I affirm if psyche asked me how I scheme to live a well-be confined and happy action? Personally, my answer would be that animate a uncorrupted and happy life would be animated uprightly and nutriment a signification(prenominal) life through my fretfulness for dowry other(a)s through nursi ng and in like manner through my faith. There be many people that have studied these aspects of what a earnest and happy life would look like and have different views on what actually defines what it means to live in a perfect(a) and meaning(prenominal) way.harmonize to the Stoics, their idea of virtue was moral goodness, doing what is right, just, honorable and wise, but I rely that being virtuous goes beyond being morally perfect. So, what does being virtuous actually mean to me? Being virtuous means consciously melodic phrase to do what is right, and learning from our mistakes, and continually induceing to be a improve person. In Joel Kuppermans book, Six Myths About the Good Life, there is a quote that reads There has to be a learning process array of this inevitable de set off involve moral decisions, made by mortal who is still inexperienced and who may be under pressure.I count that making mistakes is part of our human nature, but that does non mean that we can not be virtuous people. We can still live a virtuous life by learning from the mistakes that we have made. So, how does this view of virtue ensure that I live a good and happy life? Living a virtuous life require us to do what is right, and feel good about those decisions that we have made. It is important to learn from our mistakes, because in return, we will grow as people, and hopefully not continue to make those same mistakes.A life full of doing bad things, will only leave us with a life full of regrets at the finis, but funding virtuously will prevent us from living a life of regrets and in return will ensure a good life. Someone might disagree by saying that virtue is not important because anyone could live a good and happy life by doing bad things and stomping on the people around them for their induce good. But, what is this person spillage to think at the end of their lives? What good did they do here on earth? That person would not look back at their lives as a good l ife and would eventually not end up happy with it.Yes, I am sure this person was happy at certain points throughout their life, but the ultimate goal here is to end up with a good and happy life. A good and happy life means doing good things, and feeling joy through those good things that we have done. Aristotle believes that the most pleasant life, and presumably the happiest, is a life of virtuous or excellent activity. (Haybron p. 48) This means that a life of just doing good acts is just a part of the big picture. Doing good and excessively living a life full of meaningful and worthwhile activities is the key to a good and happy life.This leads into my second aspect of a good and happy life, which is living a meaningful life. How does one live a meaningful life? I believe that living a meaningful life means living beyond yourself, working towards something that has value to you and also to other people, and doing something that is worthwhile in the end. It means not just exist ing on this earth, but living a life that you would be willing to live over again. A quote from Haybrons book reads Any life devoted to worthwhile ends is meaningful.This means that doing something that will have worthwhile end results for not only you but the people around you is doing something meaningful. How does living this meaningful life make our lives good and happy lives? Living a meaningful life is ultimately living an emotionally fulfilling life. We will denudation vanity and happiness in doing things that are valuable and meaningful to us, and will ultimately lead to a good and happy life. Haybron goes as far to say that The full measure of happiness requires that we connect, in our lives, with what seems to us to matter.This means that we will not even experience our full potential happiness if we do not engage in meaningful activities. So, if a key part of a good and happy life is just doing something that is meaningful, then someone may argue that any useless activ ity that someone realises meaningful will lead to a good life. For example, someone who sits on the butt floor counting tiles because that is something that they determine very meaningful and valuable, would not be viewed as someone who is living a good and happy life to most people.This concept of doing meaningful things then must go far than just doing things that are meaningful to us personally. This is where Haybron talks about determination something that is not only valuable to oneself but also other people. A quote from his book reads, The most meaningful lives will combine native and objective meaning appreciative engagement with what genuinely matters. The most meaningful life then must mean engaging in activities that have an equal balance between personal meaning and also meaning to others. Through my 20 years of age, I discovered what this meaning is for me.I plan to live a meaningful life by luck others through my nursing practices and also through my faith. Hel ping others and making a difference in their lives through the nursing skills that I have acquired, and also the knowledge that I share about my faith, is my passion in life. harmonize the studies done my Mihaly Csikszentmehalyi people find the most pride and joy in doing activities that they can get caught up in. He refers to them as unravel experiences, and explains that these flow experiences are important to our happiness.I completely agree with what this stands for. I find that my true happiness comes from when I am engaged in situations of aid other people not only physically but also spiritually. The feeling that I receive by giving others a soften life, is a feeling of happiness that I do not find in anything else I do. I could not fill my life with ample pleasures, relationships, or belongings to ever feel as though I would be living as good and happy of a life as I plan on living, without living out my perpetration and passion for helping others physically and spiritu ally.Although this is my plan to secure a good and happy life, this may not be applicable for everyone, but living a good and happy life is most definitely achievable. analogous it states in our constitution, we have the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. This does not entail that our happiness is given to us, but rather it is something that we have the freedom to strive for, and find the things that will ensure us this good and happy life. In regards to my own life, I find this attainable by living virtuously and by living a meaningful life through my passion for helping others through nursing and also through my faith.By living in such a way, I can live happily well-read that I am doing good and making a difference in peoples lives that will end in something that was worthwhile. Drawing from other readings and others opinions, I have been reassured that it is possible to live a good and happy life through just these devil aspects of virtue and meaning. I plan to live in this way in hopes that when my life comes to an end I can believe that it was a good and happy life.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
American LITERATURE I Instructor Dr. Le Thi Thanh Troy University STU Campus The Pocahontas Incident fast unitary metal thrasher Group members Ho Truong Phuong Thao TranThi Hong Nhung Nguyen Van Huy Objectives Under stomaching authors biography and his represent Understanding Pocahontass biography Answer three impotant questions ab come forward his work A. toilette metalworkers biography seat Smith (1580 1638) had have a heroic brio since he was non whole a English sellier provided withal became searchr and author.He contributed a part of his c atomic number 18er to be the professional of the first ship which made a landfall at Massachuselts in 1602 to explore New England. He was in any case memorized for the founder by setting up the English settement at James Town, Virginia. tail end Smiths breeding hi apologue experienced galore(postnominal) anformer(a)(prenominal) adventures when he was an adolescent in Europe. His life time had been through m both coups such (prenominal) as fighting with the Turk, becoming a slave which was sold to Asia Minor, killing his captors At twenty-seven years old, hesailed to New Wold and explored the Chesapeake Bay, the shores of New England.He also got a friendly birth with Native Americans. Moreover, he also was a famous writer and made some well-known books included A True Relation (1608), A Map of Virginia with a Description of the farming (1612), The General History of Virginia, New-England. The Pocahontas story appeared in the Summer Isles (1624). John Smith had been probably offer an important share to the first colonial piece in America. B. About the work This work draw the episode that John Smith had been salvage by the princess Pocahontas since he was captured and in the hands of Indians.This describe was narrated by him the third person to told the audiences how the story happened. There were some detaited we should brook attention to this work Who were the characters? John Smith, Powhatan, Pocahontas How numerous other Indian tidy sum were at the judiscation? much than two hundreds Where did the judiscation happen? Meronocomoco, Virginia How did it happen? Firstly, John Smith was brought to meet Powhatan and his courtiers. When he was prepared to be killed, Pocahontas had saved him by get his repoint in her arms and laying her own upon his (p. 3). Two old jump on subsequently, John Smith was led to a great house and was departure to be fired, Powhatan absolve him from death and esteem him as his son called Nantaquoud (p. 43) why was he alive? Thanks to the Pocahontass altruistic, he had been rescued. New words courageousness (n) s? l? ng l? y, s? an m? c sang tr? ng robe (n) ao choang train (n) doan tuy tung bedeck (v) trang hoang, trang di? m, trang tri babarous (a) da man, man r? contented (a) b? ng presbyopic cloaked (a) tra hinh, c? i trang mat (n) t? m th? m, rapid eye movement sleep esteem (v) quy m? nC. Pocahontass Biography 1. What is the major i n Pocahontass life? Matoaka was the beautiful and lively daughter of Powhatan, ruler of the land that the English named Virginia. Pocahontas was her childishness nickname, translated as little wanton, meaning she was playful and hard to control. When she was born, Powhatan sent her produce home to her own village, to raise Pocahontas. That was his custom. When she was to the highest degree school age, Pocahontas go forth her come to live in her fathers capital, with her older brothers and sisters.As they grew up, Powhatan appointed some as chiefs of his other tribes. Pocahontas became her fathers favorite, the apple of his eye. In this new account, his capture included the bane of his own death at the minute of my execution, he wrote, she Pocahontas hazarded the beating out of her own brains to save mine and not only that, but so prevailed with her father, that I was safely conducted to Jamestown. Eight years later, in his Generall Historie, Smith expanded upon the story.Writ ing more or less himself in the third person, he explained that after he was captured and taken to the preponderant chief, two great stones were brought before Powhatan then as many as could laid hands on him Smith, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being lively with their clubs, to beat out his brains, Pocahontas the Kings dearest daughter, when no entreaty could prevailed, got his head in her arms, and laid her own upon his to save him from death .. When Smith returned, there were only 38 colonists left (out of 104).Pocahontas kept the colonists from starving to death that first winter, by visiting regularly with plenty of food. Pocahontas paid regular visits to her friend maestro John Smith, but in October 1609, she was told that Smith was fallen. She stopped visiting after that. The following winter was known as the Starving Time. Actually, Smith wasnt dead his leg was badly burned in a gunpowder explosion, and he had returned to England for medical treatm ent. The colonists thought the death story would work better with the Indians. some(prenominal) years passed, with no sign of Pocahontas.Ralph Hamor heard that she had married one of Powhatans chiefs, named Kocoum. accredited Argyle discovered that Pocahontas was staying with the Patowamekes, and captured her on June 4, 1613, intending to trade her for concessions from Powhatan. Powhatan only met enough of the demands to documentation negotiations open. During her captivity, leading colonists worked to convert her to Christianity. One of those colonists, John Rolfe, fell in go to bed with her, and shes with him. Pocahontas was baptized as a Christian, and married John Rolfe in 1614. Her new name was Lady Rebecca Rolfe. She gave birth to a son, Thomas Rolfe.This mating created the Peace of Pocahontas, six years of peace between the Jamestown colonists and Powhatans tribes. Pocahontas life cease on a high note, with a triumphal tour of England (arriving June 3, 1616) as a visit ing princess. She visited many important direct, including King James and queen mole rat Anne. Sho also met John Smith and this caused a big shock for her as she thought he was dead. In England, her portrait was made and published. As she started home, variola major virus English disease took her life. She was buried in the church at Gravesend, England (Mar. 21, 1617) age 21 or so. (Her exact birth date is uncertain or so 1595. The meaning of Pocahontass life is that Pocahontas played a significant role in American history. As a compassionate little little girl she saw to it that the colonists received food from the Indians, so that Jamestown would not suffer the band of the Lost Colony on Roanoke Island. She is said to have intervened to save the lives of respective(prenominal) colonists. In 1616 John Smith wrote that Pocahontas was the instrument to pursue these colonies from death, famine, and utter confusion. And Pocahontas not only served as a representative of the Vi rginia Indians, but also as a vital link between the Native Americans and the Englishmen.Whatever her contributions, the romantic aspects of her life will stand out in Virginia history forever. Historic portrait of the real Pocahontas in London, age 21, dressed as the Christian dame she had become. Whatever her contributions, the romantic aspects of her life will no doubt stand out in Virginia history forever She died within months. This portrait hangs in the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian, in Washington, D. C. This painting is a later copy of an engraving made during her London visit of 1616. It flatters and Europeanizes her more than does the original engraving, which failed to capture her celebrated allure. picpic 2. Why did Pocahontas die? And what is her deaths significances? According to Columbia electronic Encyclopedia, sixth pas seul Pocahontas was killed by smallpox an White peoples disease in a ship which returned from England to her homeland.. She died on March 21,1617 and was burried at Gravesend. Her death was one of the case which represent for the cultural chiasma between Native American and White people. The death of Pocahontas and the subsequent death of her father led the relationship between the colonists and the natives become worse. D. Understanding John Smiths work . What specific inside information of Indian life and Indian nature does the account reveal? Indian life which was decribed by John Smith was familiar with current audiences since they could substantially get out many similar characteristics which concerned to Native American on television program, newspapers or history researches. The first thing we could purpose some the cherry people was they lived a simple life which nearly to the nature as they used almost things made from the environment such as using feathers instead of a towel to dry hand, tiring skinned robe with all the tails hanging by (p. 3). Their head and shoulders painted red and used whit e gloomy of birds to help them more beautiful (p. 43). They seemed not have any idea about tresury metals uniform gold, diamond which White people were touch sensationing for. They only focused on their simple, traditional comunity by using primitive and ancient tools such as robes, shoes, bows, arrows Moreover, Indian society was different from ours in some specific ways. equality and justice was emphasized and took stock in each citizen no yield who they were, what their social status was.For example, in John Smiths work, although Powhatan was the chief King of Red people, he still made his own robes, shoes, bows, arrows, pots lant, hunt, or do any thing so well as the rest (p. 43). In addition, land was the thing which could be revealed and complimented as well. For instance, when John Smith was captured, a long consultation was held between the King, courtiers and other people to make the final decision. Finally, their finish was special and colorful as they often disguis ed and bedecked themselves with tail, white down of bird (p. 43)Followed the account, the Indian nature was absolutely rich, wealthy and bounteous. It was also described through the Native peoples appearence with red color on their head, great range of mountains of white beads about their neck (p. 43) How much confidence do you have in the truth of these details as related by Captain Smith? In our groups work, since we considered that John Smiths account was veracious and had many similarities to the reality not only in Indian culture which we slow found in television, newspapers, films but also in the detail that Pocahontas had saved his life.There were many researched told this story and proved that Pocahontas used to rescue him such as Pocahontas and Her World (1969) by G. S. Woodward or Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2010). Thus, we concluded that there was about 90 percentage of John Smiths work is true and the rest part might be hyperbolized by his create me ntally and mannerism. 2. How do you account for the popularity of this story in American legend? The story of Pocahontas is very popular. Almost people in America and also well-nigh the world know this.So it really becomes the big inspiration for many people to institute their creation. For example The very famous picture The Baptism of Pocahontas painted by John Gadsby Chapman in 1840. This explained the characters in the painting, and praised the Jamestown settlers for introducing Christianity to the heathen savages. pic In the 19th century, John Brougham produced a burlesque, Po-ca-hon-tas, or The Gentle Savage. It debuted in 1855 and became an instant hit. Po-ca-hon-tas remained a staple fibre of theatre troupes and blackface minstrel companies for the next 30 years, typically as an afterpiece .Several films about Pocahontas have been made and two of the most famous film are Pocahontas (1995), It was produced byWalt Disney Feature Animation pic The New World(2005)written and dir ect byTerrence Malick pic The song color of wind is also mention about Pacahontas. Performed by Vanessa Lynn Williams who is the very famous singer and had won the pretermit American contest in 1984. pic 3. What typical American traits do you find in Captain John Smith? John Smith was an adventurer, discoverer, writer, and the crush founding father of America.Captain John Smith risked his life, his reputation and property to dedicate a colony in America. He contributed a great deal to the creation and survival of the English Colony in America which is the place of origin of the United States. John Smith was a self-made man. He left his English homeland to seek a life of adventure with honor. His lead quality during crisic was another American trait, optimistic and tolerance. Captain Smith did not have attention to revenge for his partners who was killed by Native Americans. That means he got generosity in his heart. Moreover, he got along with Indian well.And he was also stepti cal when he was captured by Narive Americans. So John Smiths characteristics look like the American people now. They are clever, self-made, friendly and especially they forever like to find out a new change for their life Work Cited Hadas, Pamela White. POCAHONTAS FROM HER NEW WORLD. Kenyon Review 5. 2 (1983) 24-34. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. P. L. Barbour, Pocahontas and Her World (1969) G. S. Woodward, Pocahontas (1969). PhD. Le, Thanh Thi, ed. Pocahontas Incident. American Literature. Ho Chi Minh Education, 2007. 42-44. Print. Pocahontas. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2010) 1. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. Silver, Marc. Pocahontas, for real. U. S. News & World level 118. 24 (1995) 61. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. TRATNER, MICHAEL. TRANSLATING VALUES MERCANTILISM AND THE numerous BIOGRAPHIES OF POCAHONTAS. Biography An Interdisciplinary Quarterly 32. 1 (2009) 128-136. Academic Search Complet e. EBSCO. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. http//pocahontas. morenus. org/poca_pic. html http//www. preservationvirginia. org/rediscovery/page. php? page_id=26 http//pocahontas. morenus. org/index. html
fulfil Outline Planning a Gr consume Family Vacation I. Introduction A. blend in In B. Thesis II. Reserving a room A. Choosing your location B. Pay the make for the room III. Purchase Supplies A. Purchase Clothing and accessories B. Purchase groceries IV. Packing for the wind up A. Make check list musical composition packing B. Check things remove as they are packed up. V. Conclusion A. Restatement B. Ending Process strain Planning a Great Family Vacation After working each(prenominal) year long, some cartridge clips sixty plus hours a week, the mind and system net become very worn down. You form to have a break or your work performance could suffer.The last part of spend or the first part of spring, is when you start rec onlying, Wow, I really subscribe a vacation You can usually tell when that time is coming. That is when you think about beginning the process of mean your yearly family vacation. The process of planning for a family vacation exit en authorized a wor ry-free, pleasant vacation, from choosing and reserving a room, to purchasing all supplies you will need, to finally packing up and comportment out to your week long vacation. The first step is to consider and keep back your room. You can choose the room based on several things, bell being one of the most important.You will also need to choose a room based on what activities you plan to do and what the hotel is near. You can usually pay your bewilder in February for your July vacation. This guarantees that you will have a place to stay while you are on vacation. It also subject matter less you will have to pay when you arrive for the week of your vacation. The deposit is usually the cost of the room for two nights plus a modify or security deposit. The next step is to purchase all the supplies you will need for the trip. You will most likely need new vestments that will be weather appropriate and any accessories you will need.For the lake, it is a good idea to make authoriz ed that you have clothing for limber up weather, such as bathing suits, shorts, cover ups, and flip-flops. likewise make sure to have enough clothing to last you the distance of your stay, unless you will have access to a washer and dryer. To save money on dine out, purchase groceries to last you for the week. You can buy things to make sandwiches so that you do not have to spend a lot of your vacation in the kitchen. Also, purchase things for several home-cooked meals so that you will not be tempted to eat out often. The final step will be packing for your trip.Make a list of things that you will need while on vacation. Be sure to pack all clothing and toiletries that you will need for a week. Also be sure to pack any medications that you will need for the length of your stay. As you pack, take the time to mark things off your list. Did you remember all of the kids swimsuits, floats, water toys and sunblock? Did you pack snacks for the ride to your destination and games for the kids to play while riding to keep them from getting bored? Planning in call down and thoroughly for your vacation is the best way to delight in your vacation when the time to go finally arrives.As long as you have planned right on by reserving your room, purchasing your supplies, and packing properly, you will have a mythological and worry free vacation. You and the whole family will be able to enjoy your time away, and you will make many memories to enjoy because you took all the latent hostility and worry out of your vacation by properly planning the trip. after on, you will be able to reminisce about all the peachy times you had with your family while knowing that you did all you could to guarantee that your family had the best vacation possible
Saturday, February 23, 2019
Raymond Chandler would the like us to believe that The Big Sleep is just some other example of tough detective fiction. He would like proofreaders to see Philip Marlowe, Vivian Regan, Carmen Sternwood, Eddie Mars, and the rest of the characters as all good guys or bad guys with no deeper meaning or symbolic representation to them. I found the moderate simple and easy to understand the line was that it was too easy, too simple. Then came one blow up that totally stood come out of the closet from the rest of the book &emdash the chessboard. Marlowe toyed with it whenever he got the chance, and it probably helped him think of a neighboring move in a particular case.I found it rummy that Chandler made such a brief mention of chess, provided I did not realize why until I finished the book and had metre to think to the highest degree what I had read. In a very physiquele sense, the entire unexampled resembles the game of chess. Each character is a piece, and the learn of the game is survival. Though the ultimate goal in chess is to hook on possession of the king, the underlying strategy is to eliminate as many pieces as one possibly can. This serves as insurance in the overall goal. being that the characters/pieces determine the direction of the goal, let us look at them to begin.I have chosen to examine two characters in-depth and therefore put them on the board with the rest of the people in the novel. Philip Marlowe does not correspond to the cavalry of the chessboard. Chandler assumes that the reader lead fall into the easy trap of produceing Marlowe to the office staff of the knight. After all, he is the main man in the novel, the one who involve to solve the case. His self- commentary in the opening chapter lures the reader into believing he is a typical white knight hero. I was neat, clean, shaved and sober, and I didnt worry who knew it.I was every social function the well-dressed private detective ought to be (3). This is a fittin g description of a knight only because knights must possess equivalent qualities in order to be heroes. The main idea here is goodness, and Marlowes description exudes this goodness. However, as we progress throughout the novel, his goodness mutates into something with more of an edge on it. By the end of chapter eight, Marlowe goes to bed full of whiskey and frustration (42) and, the next twenty-four hours (chapter nine), wakes up with a motormans glove in my mouth (43).It is safe to conjecture Marlowes sobriety is questionable, especially when he tells Bernie Ohls and us that, Ive got a hangover (43). Is this the carry out of a knight? I do not think so. Similarly, his situation towards everyone else in the novel detracts from his knighthood. For example, look at his treatment of Vivian Regan, who I ordain talk about a little later. They ar talking for the firstly condemnation and she tells him how cold-blooded a beast he is. Or shall I call you Phil? Sure. You can ca ll me Vivian. Thanks, Mrs. Regan. Oh, go to hell Marlowe (61).More of the selfsame(prenominal) follows with other characters in each instance, Marlowe does not exhibit any gentleman-like qualities that a private eye should exhibit. So, if Marlowe is not the knight on the chessboard, what is he? I believe that he is more of a rook or a bishop piece and not a knight. When we think about the knight on a chessboard, it has a good amount of flexibility provided check performance. However, a rook or a bishop can move as far as it wants to move, even if the directions be not many. Movement is substantial to Marlowe because he thrives on getting his task done.This requires a great hired hand of movement on his part. This movement includes our next subject, Vivian Regan. A funny thing happened when I was writing up the previous conversation between Marlowe and Vivian. rather of typing Mrs. Regan, I typed Mrs. Marlowe instead. I do not attrisolelye that to a simple lapse in thinking , but more to the concomitant that Vivian is equivalent in manner to Marlowe they could easily be mis payoffn for a conjoin couple. Vivian possesses the same sharp tongue, the same penchant for drinking, and other Marlowe-esque qualities.For example, there is the part where she is gambling in Eddie Mars casino and conveys a bet that the house cannot cover. What kind of cheap outfit is this, Id like to know. Get busy and spin that wheel, highpockets. I want one more play and Im playing table stakes. You take it away fast enough Ive noticed, but when it comes to dishing it out you start to whine (138). That sounds like the language Philip Marlowe might use if he ran into a convertible situation. scour after he foils a would-be robber in the park lot, she still shows little signs of thanks. Nice work, Marlowe. Are you my bodyguard now? (143).Vivian complements Marlowe perfectly, but is she a rook/bishop on the chessboard in the novel? Yes, but provided that Marlowe is not the sa me piece as she is. In other words, if Marlowe is the rook, then Vivian is the bishop, and vice-versa. I do not see Marlowe and Vivian as cohesive as Chandler might want us to believe nonetheless, they do possess similar qualities. After talking about two of the more prominent characters, it is time to devise a chessboard strategy that makes some kind of sense.I mentioned earlier that the point in chess is to capture the king, but another goal includes getting other pieces out of the way first. If I were to assign sides, I would put people like Eddie Mars, Joe Brody, and Carmen Sternwood on a polar side than Marlowe, Vivian, and General Sternwood. Why? The first group while full-grown Marlowe some kind of help is more concerned with their own safety, and individuals are not afraid to knock off anyone who messes with them. How come Carmen is included in this group?Many people would say that she is neither here nor there, but when she comes to Brodys apartment and confronts Marlow e at the very end, she shows her true colors. In addition, there is the fact that she murdered Rusty Regan because he would not jump in the switching with her. This is where the chessboard strategy begins to unfold. Chandlers style not only pertains to his simile/ parable use and his abbreviated sentences, but also to his construction of character movement in the novel. In chess, what one piece does to another or where it moves to straightway affects the movement of other pieces on the board.For example, moving my rook three spaces whitethorn not mean capturing a piece, but it does give the opponent something to date in terms of future moves. He does not want to make a move now that would jeopardize him later. Similarly, what happens in Joe Brodys apartment affects a good amount of the characters in the novel, from Carmen to Eddie to Marlowe to Vivian, and so on. In addition, that part affects what goes on in Eddies casino and Geigers house. While there may not be direct influenc e, there is definitely an indirect sort of influence. What does this say about Chandler as an author?It says that he likes to give his readers something to look for in his novels, and that the something will not always be apparent at first. Digging up the chessboard motif would be no easy task for roughly readers because of its brevity in the novel. The average reader would not read this book for analysis he or she would read the novel for pleasure. It is only because we &emdash as English majors &emdash are trained to look beneath the find that I was able to put this together. This also says something about the world that Chandler lived in.His was a world of thinking about the next move and being careful about what one did, which is evident in the novel. It was hard to trust anybody because everyone had egotistic motives on their minds. That factor also corresponds to the chessboard in that a psyche might move a piece for individual reasons while not even considering the rest of his or her pieces. That might lead to consequences later. Chandler cannot warn us about keeping track of all of the moves in the story because they are unfolding as we move with Marlowe (who obviously cannot warn us, either).It is up to the reader to keep track of everything. The Big Sleep is not a novel about chess. It is about how people and events interact and relate to one another, similar to the game of chess. As I mentioned before, the characters and their individual actions ultimately had an effect on the overall strategy and goal, which for Marlowe was to find Rusty Regan. He eventually observed the late Mr. Regan, but it was only after a series of moves on the chessboard of life.
SUBIECTUL 1 WE ARE BECOMING OVERWHELMINGLY DEPENDENT ON COMPUTERS. IS THIS DEPENDENCE A GOOD THING OR SHOULD WE BE to a greater extent SUSPICIOUS OF THEIR BENEFITS ? GIVE ARGUMENTS TO SUPPORT YOUR IDEAS. It is a fact that our gen sequencetion is what layabout be called The First Computer Dependent Generation. Computers capture beat one of the close important and influential luxuries of this generation. Young pile role estimators constantlyy day for school, work, and entertainment. They ar the first generation to pack endure computer literate as early as the onset of adolescence.For most of their lives they have used computers, so it is not surprising that our generation has cash in ones chips highly dependent upon them. Computers argon intensively used in every aspect of mans life. Computer systems manage almost everything we see. Banks, schools, malls, libraries, broadcasting, military, aeronautics and governments have systems where computers rook a vital role. We re ly on computers to do most of our occasional activities. This is the computer age. With the help of computers, man homo body is entering a new era of enlightenment.Dealing with the enormous amount of data that the modern man is faced with git tho be done by means of computers. What is more, due to them, grand progress has been make in many important fields much(prenominal) as surgery for instance. In addition, they are becoming more than ever a necessity to the educational system. By means of computers lessons are made more attractive, more instructive, certain skills are better developed. It no long-lived costs thousands of dollars of equipment to make a film or to compose music.Amateur filmmakers arse produce work from their own homes. Graphics engineers can use computers to pee three-dimensional models, or even to generate short or rough films. Anybody who owns a computer can now enter the field of media production. intercourse in our century would be unconceivable wit hout the Internet, which is a massive network of computers, each with the ability to access any of the others. The Internet is something like a customary virtual wisdom that can be instantly accessed for any kind of information.E-mailing has become one of the most efficient ways of quick communication. However, this assurance on computers has several disadvantages. Anyone who has worked with computers for long periods of time knows that computers can be bonny as addictive as smoking or drinking. Computer dependance can have a number of physical, fond, and psychological effects and it is to be taken as seriously as any other addiction. peerless common physical effect computer addiction can have are abide problems.Sitting for so long can take a toll on a persons muscles and can result in wretched posture. Poor posture can result in chronic back problems that require the services of a doctor. Dry eyes and vision complications are some eye problems caused by overuse of a computer. Headaches are preferably common in computer addiction and are linked to the tug of the eyes. Because of the long hours fatigued in front of a computer, addicts often have eating irregularities. Computer addicts experience sleep disturbances or changes in quiescency patterns.Social effects of computer addiction include reduced time spent socializing with others. People may begin to feel that their computer is the only relationship that they have the time to focus on. They lose the desire for human contact and communication and in a way they are geological fault away from reality. Lacking the desire to make contact with others means miss the desire to create new relationships or to build on already existing ones. After a certain amount of time, they lose their intercourse skills completely.Within the lives of computer addicts it is their friends and family that suffer the most from this form of alienation (=estrangement). There are stages in childrens lives when they should know how to play, to be able to learn the set of trust, initiative, competition and cooperation. A child can only appreciate these through and through social contacts. Studies show that individuals who spent their childhood in front of computers are more distant, isolated and have difficult social lives. Another spirit level is that the availability of online chatting systems makes people rely on computers to communicate. Because of this, social interaction, the development of social skills is jeopardized (=endangered). In addition to this, the gimmick provided by the use of computers in perfunctory life also has its price. Online banking systems are rather potential hacking zones, computer tear management and storage are vulnerable to viruses and hackers, individuals personal data are no longer private.Although crime prevention has benefited a lot from computer usage through CCTV cameras, GPS systems and digital identificatio n systems, people do not seem to be prepared to live in a area where their every step is being watched and recorded. In modern society convenience comes at the expense of privacy loss. I strongly believe that if people are aware of the potential hazards of computer dependency and if governments can do something to educate or inform people about them, then problems arising from this thin will be minimized.
Friday, February 22, 2019
LING 160 Guidelines for Exam 2 Exam Date, Time, and Room Exam 2 is on Thursday, parade 28, 2012, fashion 3310, at 230 p. m. It will be about iodin hour long. Exam Format Mostly multiple-choice questions and a hardly a(prenominal) open-ended, short- resultant role questions, like testing 1. Well suck in between 45 and 50 questions total. Unless express otherwise, impart short, bullet-like, answers to the open-ended questions including only the relevant information and skipping unnecessary parts. For scrutinyple, do non publish I believe that one of the most most-valuable factors for XXX is just provide the most important factor(s), and do non exceed the space provided.If you have one line for an answer, do not write more than that. There will be deductions for lengthy answers. What to vex Your SFU student ID, a pencil and an eraser for the S domiciliatetron Sheet, and a non-erasable blue or bare pen for the open-ended questions. General Guidelines ? Practice doing the e xercises in the text. Answers for most of them can be found at the end of each chapter. ? Though exam 2 will mostly cover the material discussed after exam 1, exam 2 will be cumulative. It will cover all(prenominal)thing up to and including calendar week 9, i. . , Chapters 1-10 from the textbook, including Ch. 10 Style, Context and Register, and the accompanying articles from the Reading List. ? concentrate on on main ideas and key examples supporting them. ? You do not have to memorize every single example in the textbook chapters and articles from every language. However, you do have to know the definitions of major terms, their application, and be able to provide examples illustrating the terms discussed in the texts and in the lectures. 1 LING 160/Dr.Ivelina Tchizmarova March 14, 2013 What will the Exam Cover? Textbook It will cover Ch. 1-10, including Ch. 10 from the textbook. Articles It will also cover the articles from the reading incline up until and including week 9s readings on Style, Context, and Register (see the Reading List). Focus peculiarly on the following six articles and book chapters there whitethorn be open-ended questions on them, so read them carefully, and be prepared to arrest up with your own answers 1. De Wolf, Gaelan Dodds. 990. Social and Regional Differences in Grammatical consumption in Canadian English Ottawa and Vancouver. American Speech. 65. 13-32. 2. Clarke, Sandra. 2006. Nooz or Nyooz? The Complex Construction of Canadian Identity. The Canadian Journal of Linguistics. 51. 2/3225-246. 3. Hoffman, Michol and James Walker. 2010. Ethnolects and the City Ethnic Orientation and Linguistic Variation in Toronto English. voice communication Variation and Change. 2237-67. 4. Clarke, Sandra and Philip Hiscock. 2009.Hip-hop in a Post-insular Community Hybridity, local anesthetic Language, and Authenticity in an Online Newfoundland Rap Group. Journal of English Linguistics. 37. 3241-261. 5. Battarbee, Keith. 2010. Shifts in t he Language of Law Reading the Registers of semiofficial Language Statutes. Text and Talk. 30. 6637-655. There may be multiple-choice questions on all of the rest articles from the reading list for weeks 1-9 (not just the articles after exam 1) they will be based on main ideas and key supporting examples. ? Below is a sample list of topics to review for exam 2.For each topic (1) be able to provide definitions of the sociolinguistic terms (2) illustrate them with specific examples from opposite parts of the world (3) relate the term specifically to Canada based on the articles in the reading list and the group presentations (4) when terms are effrontery in pairs (or groups), you need to be able to tell how they are connatural and how they are different from each other. ? For a more detailed list of topics, see the main texts table of subjects on pp. ix-xii. 2 LING 160/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova March 14, 2013Sample List of Topics to Review recreate note that this is not an exhaus tive list, and the questions on the actual exam may differ from these in content and format. 1. Regional and Social Dialects. 2. National and Official Languages. 3. Vernacular and Standard Varieties. 4. Language loss, language death, and language revival. 5. Gender-exclusive and gender-preferential language. 6. Age-graded features of language. 7. Ethnicity and language. 8. Social networks. 9. Language Variation and Language Change. 10. Style, context, and register.Other Reminders 1. Be on time. If you are late, you will not be given extra time to complete the exam. 2. Write legibly. If your answer is illegible, well mark it as wrong. 3. Please remember that there are no makeup exams in this course. If you are sick and cant write the test, inform me by email. Make sure you see a mendelevium and obtain a doctors note for that day. The only aesculapian form I accept is the Health Care Provider logical argument from the SFU website below. If you need it, print it out, and have your d octor complete it http//students. sfu. a/content/dam/sfu/students/pdf/healthcare-statement-general. pdf 4. Please do not email me questions about the exam. pack your questions in class, so everyone can have the chance to contribute to and unwrap the answer. 5. Answers to exam questions will not be posted on webct or distributed to students. However, well discuss the answers to exam 2 in class a week after the exam, so if you would like to hear them, you need to attend the lecture. ring also to bring your instructions with you, so you can check your answers. 3 LING 160/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova March 14, 2013
Insider concern is defined as calling whilst in possession of non-public data and if known to the public, may lead to a substantial movement in a securitys monetary value . In Australia it is prohibited by insider trading commandment (IT statutes) in the Corporations Law (CL) 1991 , though it was initially launch from recomm finishations made by the Rae committee in 1974 on the mining companionship s nookiedals .The latest law changed one single section to 20 broad(a) and complex sections, causing critique of Australia IT regulations . Henry G Manne argued that IT regulations should be abolished back up by three basic economic crinkles. This essay volition break down the pro and contra of each argument and shows that IT regulations clear spoiled the notion of integrity at the expense of efficiency, despite the objective of any securities foodstuffs regulation to agitate some(prenominal) aspects . 1. Insider trading could compensate corporate entrepreneurs . pro an d ContraThis argument is back up by Carlton and Fischel who argued that the IT regulations are the same with setting government regulation of ground and conditions of employment similar to restrict salary bon drills, stock options, vacation leave, and the otherwises which butt end motivate steering for their entrepreneurial skills . However their assumptions curve the difference betwixt the volatile deal price and a certain amount of figure compensation. As argued by Easterbrook, whither there is a volatile make do price, the management compensation argument reverts into a lottery-ticket argument .Because in the volatile percentage price, even so certified traders will hardly predict the increase or decrease of share price in the future. The high fluctuation equalizes the opening of losing their induement and getting profit, which as called compensation. From the two extremes, It hindquarters be concluded that compensation argument can be valid if the share price is r elatively stable otherwise not all insiders can get their compensation through insider trading. Directors fiduciary vocation to ShareholderHowever, if IT regulation were alone applied for a liquid grocery store, what is the utilization of fiduciary occupation? In Exicoms slickness fiduciary argument was established where persons who are subject to a legal relationship of organized religion and confidence, arising from either a prior relationship with the securities issuer (typically directors, employees and corporate agents) or the other party to trade should not make a profit from that personate or allow a conflict of interest to arise.Moore supports IT regulation on the basis of fiduciary handicraft. He reasons that directors have about fiduciary debt instrument to their shareholder to fully disclose all info they could benefit from. His image is back up by the fact that although there is no general atomic number 82 that directors owe fiduciary duty to shareholders (in addition to the company), with the purpose to prevent directors when in the position of property confidential education to spread the it to outsiders , much(prenominal) duty in recognized in Hookers case . wedge Conclusion Insider trading as a compensation for corporate decision maker is argued only happened in a stable securities industry where they can use the tuition to predict the track otherwise the profit compensation cover to be a lottery compensation. Here fiduciary duty of the insiders is questioned where in Hookers case it is possible that directors owe fiduciary duty to shareholder although there is no general principal on it. 2. Insider traffic Contributes to Market Efficiency Pro from Leland and EstradaManne argued that allowing an unfettered market in information will have salutary effects unheard of in society with regulatory disclosure . Recently, Leland and Estrada also stated similar idea that insider trading contributes to market efficiency through si gnaling where signal-trading by insiders pushed share price to a greater extent promptly towards its vestibular sense price. Pro from Empirical Measures Theory Moreover, empiric measure presents a theory the more information gets into market, the lower execution follow, the more liquid the market and the smaller volatility produced.Since investors get more helpful information to predict market trim down, the transaction cost here is lower. Transaction cost is the cost to take the risk if the companies, which they invest in, somehow default. Thus lower transaction cost is equivalent to lower risk, which can encourage more investor to trade. As trading in the market occurs importantly in one flow (either buy or get by) based on the information they got, the volatility, which represented by the bid-ask (difference between the buy and sell quotes at any one time), decreases. Consequently liquidity increases. Evidence from Real takeIn practice, Dodd and Officer found evidence th at no significant perverted returns (return of a security over its average or expected return) occurred on the day take over rumour was published, although some abnormal returns typically occurred prior to the publicity of rumour. This prior abnormal return must be because of insider trading, as the unpublished information they possess allow them to predict the trend up to takeover bid, thus, at the date of take over published, market already reached equilibrium price. Contra from Cox and Georgakopoulos and Response from WyattHowever, there are some disagreements on Manne argument. First, Cox claims that insider trading cannot make the price movement towards equilibrium price purely by their own actions . Also microstructure theory by Georgakopoulos, which states that whether support or against insider trading is depending on the market liquidity . A liquid market as discussed in the compensation arguments will consume more benefit to insiders because the votality is lower and the y can easily predict trend in stable price, hence, IT regulations in this case can be useful.On the other hand, illiquid market leads both insider and outsider traders away regardless the information they received since the votality is high and even unpublished information may exclusively let them gamble on the securitys price, hence, in such market the presence of IT regulations has no effect to the market. The idea is that the naive traders is warn to involve in market because of unfairness arise from the profit reservation activity by informed traders, hence, reducing the market effectiveness.For all that, both claims can be doubtful considering Wyatt suggestion that outsiders follow insiders action and that can encourage market liquidity . His suggestion is also supported by the fact that traders identity is kept confidential, thus, uninformed traders cannot be certain of the percentage of informed traders which make them discourage from trading. IT principle Distorts Mark et Efficiency Further issue is whether IT regulation increase market efficiency or it just increase the cost of compliance for companies and pecuniary services firms?If IT regulation inhibits market efficiency then it should be revised. IT regulations in Australia reinforces continous disclosure (CD) regulations such in Crown Casinos case where the chairman, who has no power on the companys behalf, disclosed information to outsiders before the board disclosed it to the Exchange. The court emphasized on the break-dance of continous disclosure specifically on the abuse of the term immediately . If IT regulation is just a flip-case of CD regulations, then it is obsolescent, as CD regulation already governs tardy disclosure . Sub Conclusion nsider trading contributes to market efficiency by moving the share price more quickly towards equilibrium price is supported by empirical measure which shows that insider trading increase market liquidity, and by Dodd and Officer finding on signi ficance abnormal returns prior to take over rumour instead of on the date of publicity. Although Cox and Georgakopoulos go against the concept, Wyatt response that their arguments can be the contrary, that informed traders can be an opportunity for uninformed traders to get profit by following them instead of discourage them by unfairness. 3. Insider Trading and Long-term InvestorsPro and Contra Finally, insider trading does no significant harm for long-run investors , whose market decisions will be a function of time . In detail, Manne asserts that the less shit someone trades, the less significant effect of the unfair use of expensive information from insider trading they receive. Such investors just make investment on the basis that they are timely and not affected by the share price, which is affected by insider trading. However, this view is questioned by Schotland . He argued that even long-term investor needs cash and when they need it they will consider to ait for a near price to sell it. Further, Manne suggest that long term investor can ignore price to avoid being harmed by the effect of insider trading, expect for one, which is the muddled of not having inside information in the range of the buying and marketing price so that it is insignificant. Here Manne only refers to one investment. Yet, how about when the investors have more than one (in which the common condition to diversify)? They may need to talent scout a series of share price otherwise they will end up will sell it with no profit after position so much faith waiting for it.Sub Conclusion Insider trading does no significant harm for long-term investors as they just invest on the basis of time instead of share price and only need to watch insignificant loss from the valuable information employ by insider trading. The idea is fully objected by Schotland by arguing even long-term investors need cash and should consider the right price to sell the share. Also the insignificant loss o nly refers to one share, but in practice long-term investor such as retirees diversify shares by holding more than one. ConclusionIn summary, the essay demonstrates a number of both pros and contras of whether insider trading should be abolished. Looking the above discussion, insider trading should be criminalize as it can cause significant harm to investors. It is also misrepresent with fiduciary argument. However, Insider trading is also evidenced contribute to market efficiency. Moreover, as in Crown Casinos case, IT regulation is criticized to be a mere flip-case of CD regulation and the presence just increase the cost of compliance. Therefore, It would be better if IT regulations is revised in a way that get along both fairness and efficiency equally.