Monday, September 30, 2019

Collision Theory

Collision Theory The theory proposes that molecules must collide in a particular way with a certain amount of energy to ultimately form a new product. This is because only a select portion of molecules during a reaction have enough energy and the correct orientation to break any existing bonds to form new ones at the moment of impact with other reactants. The very minimum amount of energy needed for this process to occur is referred to as activation energy.Collision theory explains why reaction rates differ for alternate reactions and also how chemical reactions occur in the first place. During a reaction, collision theory states that the higher the concentration of the reactants, the faster the rate of the reaction. More reactants leads to more effective collisions between the particles to create a new product whereas a higher concentration of products is associated with a slower reaction rate. An increase in temperature can also speed up the reaction rate.Temperature is a measure o f the average amount of kinetic energy in a system so a higher temperature leads to a higher average kinetic energy of the molecules in the reaction, therefore, more collisions occur; a faster rate of reaction. However, there is a limit in some reactions as some reactants/products can be destroyed or denatured by a temperature that exceeds its optimum conditions. In reactions involving a gas, pressure becomes a factor. Increasing the pressure will increase the chance of molecules colliding as there will be less space for them to move thus speeding up the rate of reaction.Pressure has the same effect on reactions as concentration because both factors alter the density of the particles in the reaction – the higher the more dense. In reactions involving solid reactants, to increase the rate of reaction, they should be ground up into smaller pieces (powder) as it will increase its surface area; exposing more particles to the other reactant. As more particles are exposed, the reac tion rate will escalate as more collisions can occur.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Review of Continental Airlines organizational structure Essay

1.Does the organizational design of this corporation help or hinder it in achieving its organizational goals? Continental Airlines utilizes a divisional structure relative to the management of its various entities. This structural design is due to the complex nature of the aviation industry as well as the autonomy required in operating a twenty-four hour a day, seven day per week worldwide business. In my opinion, the structural design of this organization with the exception of Continental Express and Continental Micronesia can really not be structured in any other way, and therefore should be considered helpful. The airline business is an incredibly tough business as it is. The costs of operations in relation to profit per passenger mile are very low. This airline and its management team have emerged from bankruptcy and now fly the newest fleet of aircraft in the sky today. Chairman and CEO Gordon Bethune with his years of experience in the aviation industry have afforded the opportunity for Continental to receive more awards for customer satisfaction than any other airline. Obviously, this is a far cry from the pre-bankruptcy days of this airline which now proudly stands as an industry leader. (No, I do not work, nor have I ever worked in the airline industry). The organizational structures leadership includes various notables that have grown up within the industry filling various leadership positions for other airlines. It seems as though Mr. Bethune has installed an incredibly capable team to steer this company into the future. I carved out Continental Express and Micronesia since they are basically licensed businesses that fly under the Continental flag. Their existence within the Continental family does provide routes to smaller and far-eastern destinations but are independently managed and therefore not considered (by me) as anything more than a profit center on the organizational chart. 2.If you were to change this organization, what issues would you need to consider and why? What would be the advantages and disadvantages of organizational change? If I had the ability and experience to effect change for this organization, the first issue I would consider would be consolidation of the airlines in  general. I address this issue because I do not necessarily feel that consolidation is all that it’s cracked up to be. Bigger airlines mean bigger bureaucracy and smaller profit potential. Both of these translate to decreased customer satisfaction as well as the potential for employee dissatisfaction. Mr. Bethune prides himself in being â€Å"one of the people†, he is often seen walking in the terminal, shaking hands and recognizing employees for doing an outstanding job. As a rated company pilot, he is also seen on the flight deck of the occasional 757 or 777. It is hard to imagine how the current structure could be improved beyond what it already is. He is leading by example as a leader should. Should airline consolidation continue, the main advantage would be for the traveling public. The customer could potentially book a trip around the world simply by calling the Continental reservation line. Until that customer shows up for the trip to commence, he may not even realize that he’s not even on a Continental flight. That’s the beauty of â€Å"being big†. The trip might be made up of legs flown by Northwest connecting to Varig connecting to Delta connecting to Qantas, etc. This â€Å"seamless† travel experience for the customer should be considered as an upside to consolidation. The main disadvantage might possibly be that the customer has no idea who to call when things go wrong. He might be stranded in a foreign land after his connection with China Airlines cancelled and he’s not sure of whom to contact to get back on track. The second issue I might consider would be mandatory retirement of pilots once they reach their sixtieth birthday. Organizationally, this federally mandated policy weakens the organization. My best and most experienced pilots are being forced out of my company. If this policy is unchangeable, I must find a way to keep this incredible resource happy and employed in some form or fashion that augments my existing infrastructure. This disadvantage to my organization structure is a hurdle that is out of my control but directly affects the bottom line relative to people and organizational power. Reference: www.continental.com/company/investor.governance.asp

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Review of Monique and the Mango Rains

Review of Monique and the Mango Rains Monique and the Mango Rains is a memoir about a friendship that develops between Kris Holloway, and a midwife in the village of Nampossela, Mali. Kris Holloway served in the Peace Corps and was assigned for 2 years to be stationed in Mali. Kris was trained to â€Å"give health demonstrations, repair wells, build fuel-conserving stoves, plant trees, and protect the shoots from the ever hungry mouths of goats† (11). Kris meets and assists Monique Dembele in her struggle to improve health care for the women of this village and surrounding areas.Monique, having apprenticed for two years as a midwife, and studied for nine months in a health services program, is the only health worker in the village. She performs prenatal consultations, gives health demonstrations, births babies, administers vaccinations, solves the health problems she can treat and is forced to accept the fate of those who suffer from more serious illnesses and have no access t o further medical care. But not only is Kris helping Monique, they develop a relationship that becomes a very real friendship as their lives intertwine and Monique brings Kris into the circle of her family.Despite all the things that might make it difficult, these two women create a partnership as they both try to better the lives of the women and children in the village. Women of Mali In Mali, the women’s role is to be confined to her home and yard. A Malian woman is first and foremost valued in her roles of spouse and mother. Placement into these family roles starts early; young girls are expected to help with housework and look after younger siblings. The women of Mali have arranged marriages from an early age.And even though they are arranged, the husbands are usually married to other women also. Irreconcilable differences like lack of communication, spousal incompatibility, and unhappiness between marriage partners are some of the things Monique complains about. She has more education than her husband Franois, she speaks a different language than he, and came from a much different city than the one he grew up in. As Kris gets to know Monique better, she learns of her friend's deep unhappiness with her marriage.Monique also reveals that she's having an affair with the man she would have married, had the cultural practice of arranged marriage not existed. The village of Nampossela has a clinic and birthing house. Monique was able to help the mother’s in the prenatal stages and the birthing process, teach them how to clean water, make baby food and wash their hands to stay clean and prevent the spreading of germs. She weighted the babies to show the mothers if their children were in a healthy weight range or if they were in the dangers of being malnourished.She could provide some vaccinations and administer first aid to wounds. Women of Mali faced many health risks. Since women were to have many children they were at danger during childbirth. à ¢â‚¬Å"I knew that Mali had one of the highest rates of maternal death in the world. I’d read a sobering statistic that placed a Malian women’s lifetime risk of dying in pregnancy and childbirth around one in twelve, compared to a women’s risk of one in over three thousand† (8). Excessive bleeding, straining after pregnancies, unsanitary conditions are some of the risks for women.Female genital cutting (FGC), was common amongst the women in Mali. At a young age they experience the cutting of their genital area, because they are not to experience pleasure during intercourse. This process is painful. It causes problems with childbirth, urinating, sitting comfortably and even death. It is often used with an instrument that is not sanitized and can cause the spread of diseases. The most troubling threat to the women was spousal abuse. â€Å"The lantern light was dim, but I could see that one side was swollen, her eye half closed with puffy tissue.She met my st are, lowered her gaze, and quickly draped the scarf back over† (51). The practice of arranged marriage usually led to close-knit families in Nampossela, but Korotun's defiance by marrying against her family's wishes left her stranded without any relatives to turn to in her time of need. Another danger to women that existed was rape. â€Å"He forced you? Yes, she shrugged. It was painful and then it was over† (130). Holloway finds it difficult to tell her friend of her own similar memory.Despite the difference in the ways these two address this subject of rape, it is heartbreaking that women from two completely different worlds are able to find a common ground in the act of rape. All of these risks to the women of Mali happen to the women in America as well. And shows that even from two different worlds, it seems things are not so different. Cultural Relativism No culture is superior or inferior to any other. Kris had to accept the differences about Mali without judging them or believing that her culture was the right way things should be done.Kris knew it was wrong and against women’s basic human rights to have their genital’s cut. Monique couldn’t believe that Kris hadn’t had her genitals cut. â€Å"I have never met a women like you, who has not gone through koloboli. I thought every woman had it† (114). She did not think it was right that the women of Mali were victims of domestic violence, physical violence or of rape. She felt that all children should be receiving adequate health care and that women should have the right to take contraceptives to not want to have anymore children. But this was apart of their culture.And it was up to them to change these problems. And that was what Monique wanted and was trying to do. Conclusion I really like this book. It is a personal story in an international setting about women who inspire and succeed. Kris Holloway's book is easy to read and has a perfect blend of her ref lections of her Peace Corps experience, her romance, Malian village life, Monique's individual life, and the care of women in the village of Nampossela. This book has funny moments that made me laugh, moments where I felt sorrow, and stories of the goodness in people that made me hopeful for humanity.Holloway's friendship with Monique is at the heart of this book and it is tender, inspirational, educational and heartbreaking. It is because of the relationship of these two women, who are from very different backgrounds, and have become such good friends that this book works. I feel like I get to see Monique through Holloway's book and can see how selfless, giving, strong, smart, and funny she was. I would recommend this book for anyone who is wanting to know about the culture in different parts of the world.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Idea Development of Doggy Daycare (Opportunity Assessment of Doggy Research Paper

Idea Development of Doggy Daycare (Opportunity Assessment of Doggy Daycare Center) - Research Paper Example One of the interesting things about the people in Corvallis city is their increased love for pet animals, especially to dogs. Many of the compassionate and friendly pet owners in this city visit with their dogs, bringing joy to people in mental institutions, assisted living, nursing homes and homeless shelters†(PAL, 2015). Unlike people in many other countries, Americans have the habit of looking after their pet animals like dog just like how they look after their children. As a result of that many of them are worried about the life of their pet dogs when they work at their offices. Under these circumstances, the business prospect for a doggy day care centre in Corvallis city is extremely bright. This paper analyses the viability of a new venture Doggy Day care in Corvallis of Oregon. The purpose of doggy day care centre is to provide, a healthy happy environment for pet dogs. Many of the people, especially the working professionals in Corvallis city are worried about the loneliness facing by their pet dogs while they are in their offices. They wanted to make the life of their pet dogs enjoyable when they leave their home. Doggy day care centre offers a homely climate for dogs. It provides dogs to socialize with other dogs and to enjoy their life. Another purpose of doggy day care centre is to reduce the stress levels of the working professionals. When pet lovers are confident about the healthy development of their pets in day care centers, they will be able to concentrate more on their profession. â€Å"At a dog daycare (also known as a doggy daycare, doggie daycare or dog day care), owners drop off their pets for a day of socializing with other dogs, and then pick them up in the evening† (Fabjob Inc, 2015). As mentioned earlier, professional commitments prevent many of the pet lovers in Corvallis city from catering the needs of their pet dogs

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Film proposal Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Film - Research Proposal Example My thesis is that these films have differences in semantics, mostly in the physical look and attitudes of the people and the physical aspects of the settings, but locations, archetypes, and actors express what it means to be truly human or inhuman, while syntax emphasizes the interconnection between capitalism, materialism, and dehumanization, where some people/non-people manage to re-assert the core of humanity. These stories have a different look because Blade Runner has darkness in it, while Bicentennial Man combines comedy and drama. The main protagonists provide the mood of the film. Robin Williams injects humor into an otherwise complex and seemingly impossible condition, while Harrison Ford is a detached, but committed blade runner. Despite these differences, these films share the stories of hope and love. The vision of the future of Ridley Scott is dark and materialistic, while for Chris Columbus, it is also capitalistic and materialistic, but full of hope. Furthermore, Blade Runner and Bicentennial Man have the themes of humanity, capitalism, and materialism. Social isolation is more prevalent in Blade Runner. In the end, human love and determination are human strengths that differentiate human beings from animals and that humanness is not exclusive to people, but can develop among non-humans who want to be entirely human beings in

Inside Obama's Presidency Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Inside Obama's Presidency - Essay Example The second challenge was the huge bonuses awarded as compensation to the banks; .the public was angry. When Obama met with the top banks C.E.O’s, most people expected that he would take on a hard approach against them, but this was not the case to the dismay of many. The banks seemed to have gotten it all on silver Plata. Another challenge was the reforms on the health care. Again he tried to take a bipartisan approach, but there came the problem; dealing with the congress that often slows down processes. The republicans were on his case: they did not vote for the motion. When faced with the issue of terrorism and handling Osama Bin Laden, he had to make the verdict to send U.S troops to Iraq. Leon Panetta, the CIA director, had information that Osama lived in a compound in Pakistan. The American troops went for the raid, and that reported that Osama had been killed. Another obstacle came which Obama had not foreseen. During the mid-term elections, his party lost to the republicans. Most of his supporters had been ousted, and he now had to take another approach to get things done. To take care of the debt crisis, he met John Boehner, who let him down when he needed him the most. To Obama it seemed that he had total confidence in his governance. He was so sure that his bipartisan approach would work. But if we would gauge his performance on this, I’d say that he was not successful. In all instances, he had to look for a second option. For example, looking at the stimulus bill, it passed without the votes from the republicans. Clearly, his promise to offer bipartisan solutions did not see the light of day. This was not because he was not willing to do so, but because the republicans were not ready to cooperate. From the first term’s performance, Obama tried too much to change how things worked: he had too many expectations that there wouldn’t be politics. He ought to have taken it as it is. In politics, everybody tries to be better

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Lesson Plan Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Lesson Plan Analysis - Essay Example Instances of such instructional strategy could be further gleaned from the lesson plan because it contains actions where readings and discussions are to be made regarding feelings, which afterwards will have to be drawn by the students to make the connection with what they felt on four pieces of small paper plates. On the other hand, the instructional strategy of prime background knowledge which is likewise gleaned on the current lesson plan on feelings is a method where new information or ability is associated with what the students already have learned or have experienced. A perfect example of this is when the students will be asked to name occasions on where they have portrayed and reacted to various feelings related to a particular type of situation – like when they met somebody new or when a favorite toy was broken. By asking students relevant questions regarding prior knowledge, they will be able to relate the current topic to past circumstances that are familiar to them (Effective Instructional Strategies 2004). Last but not the least is the review for fluency and generalization instructional strategy. This technique is also present within the lesson plan since it provides students other chances to put in actual practice what they have learned. In so doing this the students are able to retain the knowledge after sometime and will be able to relate it in various circumstances (Effective Instructional Strategies 2004). To make this quite effective, the students must be required to have an intensive discussion of the subject matter, which is feelings, and should be guided appropriately on situations where such feelings apply (Effective Instructional Strategies 2004). Content specific strategies in general are detailed plans or actions on how to go about a certain lesson to enhance the learning abilities of the students and instructional techniques of the teacher. Some content specific strategies are: cognitive strategies, affective

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Problems related to information management Essay

Problems related to information management - Essay Example Though organizations tend to spend a major proportion of their budgetary allocations on maintaining, updating and renewing their information infrastructure, they many a times fail to address the human factors associated with information management (Smith 19). In that context, information literacy could be deemed to be a central aspect of managing information at the workplace. A failure to initiate the employees into the basics and fundamentals of information management could expose them to a plethora of problems like an overload of information, problems faced owing to a lack of ability to locate and retrieve the required and right information, anxiety faced owing to a lack of cognizance of the essentials of information management, inadequacy in the requisite skills required to share the necessary information, day to day issues culminating into misinformation or disinformation, incumbent time constraints, and the like. Hence, to facilitate the smooth accomplishment of information mana gement at the work place, it is necessary that the organizations do invest in training the associated personnel in the requisite skills such as networking, time management, information analysis, data mining, team work, computer skills, online networking, resource management, etc so that they may be able to exploit information as a key to the overall organizational success. A lack of information literacy and improper information management at the workplace could hamper productivity in multiple ways (Milner 4). It could not only lead to a loss of the much precious time in searching and finding the right information but could inevitably be accompanied by various debilitating human ramifications like a commensurate rise in the employee frustration and stress incurred owing to the wastage of scarce resources. It could also slow down the progress at the work place owing to a lack of the required information as and when it is

Monday, September 23, 2019

Directive analysis of what to do in the evnt of a disatser that is Essay

Directive analysis of what to do in the evnt of a disatser that is possibly due to global warming, such as a hurricane - Essay Example Preparing for a hurricane before it arrives involves making an emergency plan and getting together the important supplies. The first step is to see what your insurance covers and see if any adjustments are needed in the policy. Many valuables, like cars, are damaged so it is best to make sure that all costly belongings are insured. Also, have an evacuation plan and map out the closest escape routes that will take you and your family away from the danger zone. Have emergency family or friend contact numbers and decide beforehand where to go in case of an evacuation. This also involves organizing a list of the absolute necessary items to take along to avoid confusion and panic when a storm does hit. It is also important to locate the safest room or area of the house, preferably on the lower level, if the need arises to stay inside rather than evacuating. After a plan has been set up, it is now important to get the supplies and disaster kit ready. Make a list of the items needed such as a first aid kit, non-perishable food items, water, blankets, medication, hand crank powered radio, batteries and flashlights (Henthorn 2011). It is essential to secure all the important documents in water proof bags or containers. Make sure to have a sufficient amount of cash at home and do not wait till the last minute to fill up your vehicle with gas. Also get together plywood or shutters and the required tools to board up windows and doors if hurricane warnings are close. If your budget allows, have a back up generator in case of power outages and electricity failure. Be knowledgeable about any weather changes and continue to listen to the news about updates. This will help you and your family make any necessary adjustments to the plan and gathered supplies. Knowing what to do during a hurricane is just as important as planning for it. If staying inside, seek protection in the safest area of the house and keep yourself and your family away from windows and glass doors. Make sure to turn off all heavy duty appliances, like refrigerators and microwaves, to minimize damage. Do not go out to check on the hurricane even if it seems calm, because there can still be flying debris and rapidly increasing winds (Henthorn 2011). Through out the storm continue to communicate with your family in order to engage in a normal activity and help with any feelings of fear and panic. Also, keep on listening to the radio to be informed of any changes taking place. If the need arises to evacuate, try to turn off all utilities and appliances, gather only the necessary items and follow the proper evacuation routes. Remember that during a hurricane it is important to stay calm and ensure the safety of your loved ones. It is equally critical to be precautious after a hurricane because injuries can still be sustained even if the storm has passed. Do not leave the house in order to check on the damage done until a clear sign is given by the authorities. Avoid coming into contact with puddles, loose wires and smashed trees (Henthorn 2011). Try to use your phones for emergency purposes only, reporting broken gas or water pipes, and unstable power lines. If power had to be restored, carefully go about the house checking on food and other items, staying clear of electrical appliances and wires. In the

Sunday, September 22, 2019

A comparative analysis of The Sun Essay Example for Free

A comparative analysis of The Sun Essay Newspapers are a form of communication and words and photographs can be used very powerfully. New stories attract your attention and styles of writing / reporting is used as an effective device. The media use these devices each and every day. An article they have read in a newspaper has at sometime influenced everyone. However, it is important that you realise you are being influenced and how this is being achieved. Just by purchasing either The Sun or The Guardian to read is the most influential decision you do! This media assignment is a comparative analysis of The Sun a tabloid newspaper and The Guardian a broadsheet newspaper. The front pages will be compared, as will be a news story and also the editorials from both editions. Front Page The Sun Tuesday, March 18 2003. The Guardian Tuesday, March 18 2003. The visual presentation in both front pages of The Sun and The Guardian play a very important role. The Sun has used the front page as a presentational device; this is representative of the journalism in The Sun. The whole of the front page is dedicated to the image of a group of soldiers in action; with the headline Green light for War which is echoed by the whole of the front page tinted in green, which is the apparent view through a soldiers night vision binoculars. This relates well to the article itself; it communicates to its readers without having to first read the text. The use of the colour green and the headline Green light is almost a metaphor; it suggests to the reader that war is forth coming and at hand. These are stylistic choices made to appeal to readers and are eye-catching. Also the main information needed is contained within the headline. Within the text on The Suns front-page one sentence is represented as one paragraph this is to allow the readers eye to travel to points and draw the image and the text together. The style of writing adopted has a bearing on the theatrical; In the ghostly green light. stealthily towards plus the use of bold text adds to the effect. The structures of the sentences are very simple, abstract and condensed easy for the reader to digest. The tone of the piece is informal, a technique to make it easier for the assumed audience to read. In contrast to The Suns front page The Guardian has many glaring differences between the two. The Guardian uses much more information throughout. By comparison the images used in The Guardian of Robin Cook MP and President Bush are also important national and international events as Bush is seen looking very solemn and serious seated at his desk. It seems that The Guardian is trying to strike a chord with the reader by including above the photograph of Bush a sub heading; Bush throws down gauntlet to Saddam: Go into exile with your top men or face massive invasion. Whilst not overdoing it to seem patronising, a well-fixed balance seems to have been found the image reflects the sub heading. The photograph of Robin Cook and sub heading balances out the layout of the front page it looks neat and methodical. The Guardians choice of text and language differs greatly to The Sun the style is also abstract but uses literary angle History will be astonished at the diplomatic miscalculations. This indicates that the people who read this newspaper have a higher level of education, as this paper is more difficult to understand. The Guardian uses long, complex sentences this once again indicates a reasonable level of intelligence expected from the readership. Statistics are used in The Guardian to prove several points this is used as evidence for the sub heading Support for attack jumps, but opposition still in majority. It helps the reader understand the neutral reporting by stating the statistics the article is laying out the information for the reader to absorb. All three articles on the front page of The Guardian use direct speech; in total contrast The Sun does not supply any direct speech on its front page. This is not the only difference between the two newspapers the content is completely different. The different audiences at which the papers are aimed are apparently much more in the content and language of the two newspapers than any other factors affecting them. Newstory The Sun Thursday, March 13 2003: Tarrant: I like to make them sweat. The Guardian Thursday, March 13 2003: Judge provides lifeline as Tarrant fails to answer barristers opening question. Both newstories are visual both have a photograph of the TV celebrity Chris Tarrant. One of the effective differences is The Sun uses colour photograph and The Guardian has gone for the black and white option. This is influential towards the audience colour is communicable and catches the attention of the reader. Plus The Sun has devoted two pages to the story albeit one page is dedicated to photographs and a sketch of inside the court. The Guardian is quite restrained and formal concerning the current trial involving TVs Chris Tarrant and Major Ingram and his alleged cheating on the popular TV game show. Considering the popularity and interest in the case The Guardian does not sensationalise or dramatise the reporting in its article. It is an objective piece of journalism giving the reader a balanced point of view, it is there to inform only. In comparison The Sunis not concerned with serious public interest, but only with what entertains the intended reader and therefore it sees its readers as enjoying celebrity news / scandal. All journalism is there to elicit a response from the reader. The article in The Sun creates an atmosphere of amusement. Spread across the top of the two pages like a mini-headline that reads Millionaire courtroom in stitches as game show host takes witness box this is intended to make the story sound more amusing and an added factor is the over large photograph of the jovial Chris Tarrant; this only reinforces what The Sun thinks its audience wants to see. The Guardian uses articulate language throughout; the sentences are longer and structured and are also approached in a formal manner. There is no striking headline instead this article has a smaller lower case text, and is located on the middle of the second page of The Guardian. Furthermore there is no use of puns, clichi s or jokes to cheapen the article. The way, in which the article is written provides more evidence, it is a conservative style of journalism this appeals to an intellectually wider audience. Whereas The Sun reports a similar story throughout, but its use of language is distinctive to tabloid newspapers. By using monosyllabic style The Sun creates easy reading most paragraphs are short bursts theses are designed to keep the readers attention. The Sun also uses a form of pyramid journalism, they put the juicy news first as many readers dont read more than the first couple of paragraphs this is stereotypical of tabloid newspapers. The main headline Tarrant: I like to make them sweat is an excellent example of journalise; its clichi ridden which is characteristic of The Sun. Once again in The Sun one sentence is equal to one paragraph. The opening paragraph is bold and in lower case text and is a simple explanation to the reader about the main headline. From the opening paragraph and into the sixth paragraph the text has changed four times from bold to italic text, the purpose of this is to keep the reader attentive and engaged. The sketch in The Sun in which Chris Tarrant looks like hes being questioned by the prosecutor, has text below quote Final answer? is a splendid example of the use of a clichi / pun, as it makes reference to Chris Tarrants TV game show. The readers of The Guardian are more likely to be scholarly as much of the language that The Guardian uses is academic, such as its use of polysyllabic text: impassionate, strategically, specifically, steepled and persona are examples of this type of language which is used in the article. It crates a more accurate coverage and reporting of this particular news story, which is apparently how the readers of The Guardian prefer their newspaper to report, more focus on the facts than entertainment. Editorials The Sun Says Thursday, March 13 2003: Only the right way remains. Comment Analysis The Guardian Tuesday, March 18 2003: Left behind to starve. The editorials from both The Sun and The Guardian have corresponding themes war. How they contrast greatly is all down to the content and style of each article. At present the threat of war hangs heavily around the world if not more so in the UK. How each newspaper responds co-insides with its intended audience and how they are expected to respond. The Suns editorial has a bold underlined heading Only the right way remains. What is the editor implying here? Is there no other way, have we no other choice? This type of journalism is impressionable, eliciting an emotional response from the reader. The use of bold lower case text and then a short, three-word sentence followed by a four-word sentence is a clever grammatical and punctuation style of journalism, it make the reading of the article more dramatic and powerful. Puns, clichi s and sensationalised text flow throughout this editorial, the UN are seen as minnows and small fry, people are dangerous dictators, President Chirac displays arrogance and greed. All these styles are designed to influence the audience into the editors way of thinking. The opening paragraph is more of a statement than a piece of journalism; the editor is trying to play on the emotional side of the reader. What becomes apparent throughout is the patriotism shown, is the editor trying to play on the readers conscience? Possibly to sway their views and opinions? Stylistic methods and the use of hyperbolic text like: That is the measure of Blairs courage and determination which does seem a deliberate overstatement; added to the fact the text is bold and underlined is this for confirmation? Half way through the editorial The Sun quotes Blair on his tough stance: Its best to work out what the right thing is and do it. The use of monosyllabic language doesnt co-inside really with Blairs supposedly tough stance; its not much of a powerful quote! The simple use of language makes it not too complicated for the reader to perceive. In stark contrast to The Sun Says, The Guardian takes a different side to the inevitable war. This article takes a more poignant look at the effects of war and is entitled left behind to stave. From the headline and minimalist fashion of drawing the audience is exposed to an emotive style of journalism. In the first paragraph the reader is prepared for the oncoming purpose of this editorial. The first paragraph almost preps the reader Citizens would demand that their governments spend as much on humanitarian aid as they spend on developing new means of killing people. This is straight and to the point writing and also it is a very emotional style. The amount of space that this editorial is given [estimate 1000 words] is a representation on how it feels the importance of this story is needs to be told. The disclosure throughout from the amount the US will spend [$12bn] on the war, to Burundi, which is officially the third poorest nation on earth, is poignant and also emotionally striking. It is an article that exposes another side to war that many people would not have contrived. The Guardian carries throughout it this editorial the use of academic language disproportional, institutional collapse, consolidated appeal, unprecedented and uninhabitable this is what makes The Guardian is serious and educational newspaper. The Guardian discusses the logical and realistic effects around the world, whereas The Sun is not open for debate. This can be seen in the choice of language, it is churlish Treachery of France Small fry at the UN America, the mightiest nation on earth It is a typical device The Sun uses to win over the reader. The Guardian on the other hand lays down an argument and then explores it; sees the problems and evidence, then puts the factual data in for the reader to reflect and to consider. The Guardian has produced a convincing and statistical article that appeals to the readers moral stance rather than The Suns political powers of irrational thinking. The final closing paragraph [bold underlined] of The Sun Says has Tony Blair cemented in history is the reader to assume he is heroic and legendary, The Sun presumes so. The Guardian concludes with an ethical paragraph and cleverly uses a personal pronoun we, this accomplishes the objective to sound more real which it is.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Hemoglobinopathy for Malaria Protection

Hemoglobinopathy for Malaria Protection Redcells and  anaemia:  What  evidence exists to  support  the hypothesis that  haemoglobinopathies confer protection against  malaria? Introduction Haemoglobinopathies can be divided into two areas, abnormal haemoglobin synthesis and decreased haemoglobin synthesis. Abnormal haemoglobin synthesis is usually a result of genetic defects, caused by amino acid substitutions in the ÃŽÂ ± or ÃŽÂ ² chains of the haemoglobin molecule. Decreased haemoglobin synthesis is also caused by genetic disorders and arise from gene deletions of either ÃŽÂ ± or ÃŽÂ ² globin chains. This group of diseases is called thalassemia. Malaria is a parasite infection caused by the Plasmodium genus. There are 4 types that affect humans, Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparam), Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax), Plasmodium malariae (P. malariae) and Plasmodium ovale (P. ovale). The most common form is P. falciparam, which is responsible for 80% of all cases and 90% of deaths. Malaria affects between 300-500 million people each year and is prevalent in tropical areas where mosquitoes act as vectors for the parasite. Hence, much of research undertaken to date focuses primarily on P. falciparam infection. Upon entering the body the Plasmodium parasite migrates to the liver. After multiplication, they are released into the blood as merozoites. The merozoites then bind to and enter the red blood cell. The hypothesis that haemoglobin disorders confer protection against malaria can be evaluated by reviewing the evidence in support of malarial protection. However, evidence showing that these disorders do not confer protection should not be ignored. Sickle cell disease The protective effect of Sickle cell disease (SCD) against malaria was first described over 60 years ago (Beet, 1946). SCD is an inherited disease, caused by the production of abnormal haemoglobin, HbS. The gene for sickle haemoglobin (HbS) substitutes valine for glutamic acid at the sixth position from the amino terminus of the ÃŽÂ ² chain (Serjeant). Under low oxygen tension, the HbS polymerises resulting in sickling of the red blood cell (haem mal 4). Homozygous individuals for HbS carry the genotype HbSS, inheriting abnormal genes for ÃŽÂ ²-globin from both parents. Without adequate treatment, this form of the disease is fatal in early life. However, heterozygous individuals who inherit one abnormal and one normal ÃŽÂ ²-globin gene are asymptomatic and carry the genotype HbAS. This genotype is known as Sickle cell trait, which various studies claim confers protection against malaria (Allison, 1964, Freidman, 1978) ( ref 1011, haem mal4). The mechanism by which HbAS prevents malaria is unclear and is an area that requires greater research. However, there have been many suggested mechanisms over the years. These mechanisms involve the interactions between red blood cells and parasites, without excluding the role of the immune system. A study conducted by Cholera 2008 examined the role of cytoadherence of parasite and red blood cells. The findings showed that parasite infected HbAS red blood cells showed reduced binding capability to endothelial cells and blood monocytes when compared to parasitized normal Hb red blood cells. This impairment caused by HbAS is caused by a reduced expression of P. falciparam erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), responsible for cytoadherence of infected red blood cells to critical tissues such as the brain. The role of the immune system in resisting parasite infection has also been explored. Increased phagocytosis of infected HbAS erythrocytes in comparison with normal infected erythrocytes was observed ( ref smith et al 2002, akide et al 2003, Roberts Williams 2003 etc Haem mal). Further evidence showing the central role of the immune system has been illustrated by increased protection with age, strengthening the importance of immunological responses to parasite infection. Other mechanisms include the inhibition of parasite growth within erythrocytes by HbS polymerisation caused by low oxygen tension ( Haem mal). Haemoglobin C Haemoglobin C is found in west Africa, and in its homozygous state, referred to as HbCC, causes haemolysis and splenomegaly. Heterozygotes are asymptomatic and display the genotype HbAC. Haemoglobin C arises from a point mutation where glutamate is replaced by lysine at the sixth position of the ÃŽÂ ²-globin chain.   Acquired immunity against P. falciparum was reported in HbC and HbS due to abnormal display of PfEMP1 (Verra et al, 2007). However, studies on HbC malarial protection have produced contradictory results. Some studies claimed homozygous HbCC individuals were protected from developing severe malaria(haem mal) and were also at a reduced risk of malarial infections (modiano et al, 2001, haem mal). ÃŽÂ ±-Thalassemia ÃŽÂ ±-thalassemia is caused by decreased synthesis of ÃŽÂ ±-globin. It is caused by deletion of ÃŽÂ ±-globin genes on chromosome 16 (Yuthavong Wilairat 1993, haem mal). ÃŽÂ ±-thalassemia results in mild anaemia, and lower levels of haemoglobin in red blood cells. Population genetics have shown ÃŽÂ ±-thalassemia to protect against malaria, but similar to SCD, there is no consensus on the mechanism of action. Studies have shown ÃŽÂ ±-thalassemia protects against severe and fatal malaria, whereas parasiteamia is unaffected (72-78, haem mal 3). A reduction in complement receptor 1 (CR1) expression caused by ÃŽÂ ±-thalassemia has been proposed as a possible mechanism of protection. CR1   deficient erythrocytes reduce rosetting of cells, which is associated with severe malaria ( Cockburn 2004). This rosetting of cells mediated by CR1 can potentially obstruct capillaries (Stoute, 2011). ÃŽÂ ²-Thalassemia ÃŽÂ ²-thalassemia results in either no or little ÃŽÂ ²-globin production, caused by mutations on chromosome 11. Heterozygotes experience mild anaemia and ineffective erythropoiesis whereas homozygotes suffer from severe anaemia and leads to death without proper treatment (Weatherall,2000, haem mal). Protection in early life from malaria was seen in ÃŽÂ ²-thalassemia carriers as a result of foetal haemoglobin levels declining more slowly than usual ( Pasvol 1978). Other researchers reported P. falciparam growth inhibition in vitro (Brockleman 1978) and higher phagocytosis of ÃŽÂ ²-thalassemia infected erythrocytes compared to normal erythrocytes. Like ÃŽÂ ±-thalassemia and SCD, there is not yet a definitive mechanism by which ÃŽÂ ²-thalassemia protects against malaria and suggested mechanisms put forward until now require greater research. Conclusion By examining the evidence, haemoglobinopathies do confer protection against malaria. However, the protection varies from one disorder to the next as does the level of protection from malarial infection and parasite progression. The protection revolves around the red blood cell which is central to the life cycle of the malaria parasite. The different haemoglobin abnormalities disrupt parasite and red blood cell interactions in diverse pathways, resulting in differing mechanisms of protection and subsequently different levels of protection. The lack of consensus regarding mechanisms involved highlights the necessity for further research. In addition to the possible protection pathways mentioned earlier, the analysis of population genetics cannot be ignored. The haemoglobinopathies discussed have a higher prevalence in malaria endemic regions due to the protection conferred from this lethal parasite.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Landscape Architecture as a Profession :: Research

Landscape Architecture as a Profession A landscape architect is an individual who arranges and modifies the effects of natural scenery over a tract of land so as to produce the best aesthetic effect for the land's use. Landscape architecture is the design profession which applies artistic, cultural, and scientific knowledge to the design, planning, and development of the land. Landscape architects accept certain responsibilities related to the health and welfare of the public and are concerned with resource conservation of the land. The practice of landscape architecture requires an appreciation and understanding of natural and social processes, a creative imagination, and a commitment to preserve or improve the environment for human use and enjoyment. Landscape architects plan the most harmonious relationships between the land and the objects on it by proper combination of open space and planting, and by wise use of land formation (Concise 151). They may work on parks, gardens, housing projects, school campuses, golf courses, or airports. They begin a project by reviewing the needs and desires of the client. They study the site, mapping such features as the slope of the land, existing structures and the type of soil. They check local building codes and availability of utilities, make drawings which outline the work in detail, and draw up lists of materials to be used. They then invite bids from construction companies and landscape nursery companies. With the awarding of the contracts, their work may be finished, or they may stay on to supervise the work as their client’s representative (151). A major branch of landscape architecture, golf course architecture, integrates the skills of a landscape architect on a larger scale. The aim a golf course architect is to create a truly great golf course by utilizing to the fullest extent possible the potential of a promising piece of land (Golfplan 1). This potential is expressed in the site’s location, slope, vegetation, water features, soil types, climate and orientation. The role a golf course architect is the realization of this potential under the constraints of design criteria that separate the truly great golf course from the ordinary (1). Landscape architecture, the science and art of modifying land areas by organizing natural, cultivated, or constructed elements according to an aesthetic plan (Encarta 1). The elements include topographical features such as hills, valleys, rivers, and ponds; and growing things such as trees, shrubbery, grass, and flowers; and constructions such as buildings, terraces, roads, bridges, fountains, and statuary. No unalterable rules exist in landscape architecture because each plot of ground offers unique problems caused by variation in contour, climate, and surrounding areas

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Short-story Paper -- essays research papers

SHORT STORY PAPER 'Compare/contrast Faulkner's 'Dry September' with 'A rose for Emily' in terms of writing style and character presentation.'; What is going to be analyzed in this paper are the two short stories by W. Faulkner 'A Rose for Emily' and 'Dry September'. Basically, what is to be performed is a comparison/contrast analysis in terms of the writing style and character presentation. More specifically, I will provide first the information from the story 'A Rose for Emily', concerning writing style and character presentation, and following is going to be the same analysis for the other story 'Dry September'. After the necessary data are provided, there is going to be a comparison/contrast of these data, by also citing passages from the two stories, for making them more understandable. The similarities and differences that exist in the two stories are substantial. Before, the analysis on the stories takes place there are some general points that have to be mentioned that concern other elements of fiction that are as well important. To begin with, the town name that is used in both stories is the same and that is 'Jefferson'. Also both stories are taking place in the old South. And finally, in both of them the main character is a woman, Miss Emily Grierson and Miss Minnie Cooper respectively. The first story that is going to be analyzed is 'A Rose for Emily', and more specifically the analysis is divided in two parts, first I am concerned with the writing style and second with the character presentation. To begin with I have to say that this story is one that keeps the readers' interest undiminished. It has a complex plot and many questions arise when reading through it. Basically what is creating this is the lack of chronological order in the evolution of the facts that are presented. Things become more clear when one places them in the right order. Since the story is taking place in the old South, the choice and use of words indicts us to that region. Furthermore, what is also noticed here is that there are many descriptions(descriptive language) used in the story; 'It was a big, squarish frame house that … an eyesore among eyesores';(431-2). These help to understand more about the surrounding environment and about the appearance, 'They rose when she entered-a sma ll fat woman in black … while the visitors stated their errand';... ... story the descriptions about characters are referring to Emily a lot, and to other people that were close to her like the servant and H. Barron. In 'A Rose for Emily';, I saw that the reader is more like adduced to Emily's actions and emotions, while on the other story the reader has to deal with other people's actions and feelings. Added to this, I have also to say that two big differences concerning the main characters in that Emily's complex personality-in relation with her father and loved one is projected more, while on the other story we have more on Minnie's environment and relationships with other people. Summing up, throughout the analysis of the two stories by W. Faulkner, I spotted many similarities and differences, concerning the two elements of fiction, the writing style and the characters' presentation. Overall, the two stories are really interesting with a strange plot. Faulkner maintains in both stories, the strange feeling of an almost horror stories. He shows the profound wickedness that penetrates the various characters in both of the stories. Bizarre characters, outlandish settings, but more or less the same feelings to the reader, created by William Faulkner.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Women in Umuofian Soceity Essay -- essays research papers

Women in Umuofian Society "It is the woman whose child has been eaten by a witch who best knows the evils of witchcraft." That simple saying can best relate to the experience of women in the Umuofian society. A person cannot truly hope to understand how things work unless he or she was there to experience it. And that can apply to learning a new language, a new culture or learning history. The perspective given from the book Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe, states the way of life without any favoritism towards any particular way of life. Achebe just affirmed that lifestyle as a native would, void of any outside influences. In this case, the male narration focuses not only of the tragedy of Okonkwo, but also how the people around are affected and how in turn the culture affects him. Women seem to play a minor role in everyday life, but their function in the community is just as important as that of the men. The main role that was given to women was that they belonged in the home and for the most part they were to bee seen and not heard. Their influence and authority do not exist much in that culture, especially for the wives of Okonkwo. A main character in the novel, Okonkwo has several wives. Okonkwo presided over all of his wives and children with a heavy hand. When Ikemefuna comes to live in Okonkwo's household, the first wife questions the length of the boy's stay. In reply he answers, " 'Do ...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

George Washington Carver

George Washington Carver eulogy Today we honor a man known for his nutty pursuit for his passion for plants and changed the agricultural world. George Washington Carver was born a slave. He was abducted as an infant along with his mother and father then left for dead for his small and weak frame. His was blessed with more compassionate slave owners who sought the stolen family out only to find baby Carver all by his lonesome. Moses and Susan were the names of his new family who he would call â€Å"aunt and uncle† and they took him and George’s little brother Jim as one of their own. He was a struggling, sickly child cursed with a constant cough, doomed to be home bound with nothing to enjoy but the beautiful plants that grew around the farm. He dedicated his time to them. George always wanted to know more about them and even expressing his fascination with them though art. Susan saw great potential in Caver and urged him as far as she can but home schooling wasn’t enough so Caver himself sought out a high school education. He moved from town to town in Kansas and Missouri in pursuit of a high school education. It took him years longer than most students to graduate because he had to work to support the finances. Later, a family in Iowa encouraged George to try for college. He was finally accepted at Simpson College, and then transferred to Iowa State University. While Carver intended to study music and art, he was convinced instead to study agriculture since he could expect a better living. Music and art became secondary loves as Carver seriously studied agricultural science. An offer came to Carver from Booker T. Washington to teach at Tuskegee, Alabama in 1896. Carver accepted and would remain there until his death in 1943. Carver immediately became interested in helping the poor black farmers of the surrounding area as a botany and agriculture teacher to the children of ex-slaves. Dr. George Washington Carver wanted to improve the lives of â€Å"the man farthest down,† the poor, farmers at the mercy of the market and chained to land exhausted by cotton. â€Å"It is not the style of clothes one wears, either the kind of automobile one drives, nor the amount of money one has in the bank, that counts. These mean nothing. It is simply service that measures success. † Carver’s fame grew after his eulogy given at Booker T. Washington’s funeral in 1915. He later personally knew three US Presidents, both Roosevelt’s and Calvin Coolidge. His personal philosophy of sharing his learning with the community was hailed as a tremendously humanistic approach. He lived ver y meagerly and never married. Carver also received numerous awards during his lifetime like the Roosevelt Medal for Outstanding Contribution to Southern Agriculture. His face has appeared on two US stamps. He was the first African American subject for a National Monument, which stands in Diamond, Missouri. Though some of his scientific methods have been called into question, Carver is certainly significant as an innovator whose true motive was improving the lives of others. He was not tainted by both political or economic gain, and stands as a model for modern scientists.

Monday, September 16, 2019

The Return: Midnight Chapter 19

Bonnie decided, with seconds precious and seeming to stretch for hours, that what was going to happen was going to happen no matter what she did. And there was a matter of pride here. She knew that there were people who would laugh at that, but it was true. Despite Elena's new Powers, Bonnie was the one most used to confronting stark darkness. She was somehow alive after al that. And very soon she would not be. And the way she went was the only thing left up to her. She heard a glissando of screams and then she heard them come to a halt. Well, that was al she could do for the moment. Stop screaming. The choice was made. Bonnie would go out, unbroken, defiant – and silent. The moment she stopped shrieking Shinichi made a gesture and the ogre who had hold of her stopped carrying her to the window. She'd known it. He was a bul y. Bul ies wanted to hear that things hurt or that people were miserable. The ogre lifted her so her face was level with Shinichi's. â€Å"Excited about your one-way trip?† â€Å"Thril ed,†she said expressionlessly. Hey, she thought, I'm not so bad at this brave thing. But everything inside her was shaking at double time in order to make up for her stony face. Shinichi opened the window. â€Å"Stillthril ed?† Now that had done something, opening the window had. She was not going to be smashed against glass until she broke it with her face and went sailing through the jagged bits. There wasn't going to be pain until she hit the ground and nobody would know about that, not even her. Just do it and get it over with, Bonnie thought. The warm breeze from the window told her that this – place – this slave-sel ing place – where customers were al owed to sift through the slaves until they found just the right one – was too highly air-conditioned. I'l be warm, even if it's just for a second or so, she thought. When a door near them banged, Bonnie nearly jumped out of the ogre's arms, and when the door to their own room banged open, she nearly jumped through her own skin. You see? Something surged wildly through her. I'm saved! It only took a little of that brave stuff and now†¦ But it was Shinichi's sister, Misao. Misao, looking gravely il , her skin ashen, holding on to the door to hold herself up. The only thing about her that wasn't grayed-out was her bril iant black hair, tipped with scarlet at the ends, just like Shinichi's. â€Å"Wait!†she said to Shinichi. â€Å"You never even asked about – â€Å" â€Å"You think a little airhead like her would know? But have it your own way.†Shinichi seated Misao on the couch, rubbing her shoulders comfortingly. â€Å"I'l ask.† So she was the one inside the two-way mirror room, Bonnie thought. She looks real y bad. Like dying bad. â€Å"What happened to my sister's star bal ?†Shinichi demanded and then Bonnie saw how this thing formed a circle, with a beginning and an ending, and how, understanding this, she could die with true dignity. â€Å"It was my fault,†she said, with a faint smile as she remembered. â€Å"Or half of it was. Sage opened it up the first time to open the Gate back on Earth. And then†¦Ã¢â‚¬ She told them the story, as if it were one she'd never heard before, putting an emphasis on how it was she who had given Damon the clues to find Misao's star bal , and it was Damon who then had used it to enter the top level of the Dark Dimensions. â€Å"It's al a circle,†she explained. â€Å"What you do comes back to you.†Then despite herself, she started to giggle. In two strides, Shinichi was across the room and slapping her. She didn't know how many times he did it. The first was enough to make her gasp and stop her giggling. Afterward her cheeks felt as swol en as if she had a very painful case of the mumps, and her nose was bleeding. She kept trying to wipe it on her shoulder, but it wouldn't stop. At last Misao said, â€Å"Ugh. Unfasten her hands and give her a towel or something.† The ogres moved just as if Shinichi had given the order. Shinichi himself was now sitting beside Misao, talking to her softly, as if he were speaking to a baby or a beloved pet. But Misao's eyes, with their tiny flicker of fire in them, were clear and adult as she looked at Bonnie. â€Å"Where is my star bal now?†she asked with dreadful gray intensity. Bonnie, who was wiping her nose, feeling the bliss of not being handcuffed behind her back, wondered why she wasn't even trying to think of a lie. Like, let me free and I'l lead you to it. Then she remembered Shinichi and his damn kitsune telepathy. â€Å"How could I know?†she pointed out logical y. â€Å"I was just trying to pul Damon away from the Gate when we both fel in. It didn't come with us. As far as I know, it got kicked in the dust and al the liquid spil ed out.† Shinichi got up to hurt her again, but she was only tel ing the truth. Misao was already speaking. â€Å"We know that didn't happen because I am† – she had to pause to breathe – â€Å"Stillalive.† She turned her ashen, sunken face toward Shinichi and said, â€Å"You're right. She's useless now, and ful of information she shouldn't have. Throw her out.† An ogre picked Bonnie up, towel and al . Shinichi came around the other side. â€Å"Do you see what you've done to my sister? Do you see?† No more time now. Just a second to wonder if she real y was going to be brave or not. But what should she say to show she was brave? She opened her mouth, honestly not sure whether what was coming out was a scream or words. â€Å"She's going to look even worse when my friends are done with her,†she said, and saw in Misao's eyes that she'd hit her target. â€Å"Throw her out,†Shinichi shouted, livid with fury. And the ogre threw her out the window. Meredith was sitting with her parents, trying to figure out what was wrong. She had finished her errands in record time: getting enlarged versions of the writing on the front of the jars made; cal ing the Saitou family to find that they would al be home at noon. Then she had examined and numbered the individual blow-ups of each character in the pictures that Alaric had sent. The Saitous had been†¦tense. Meredith hadn't been surprised since Isobel had been a prime, if entirely innocent, carrier of the kitsune's deadly possessing malach. One of the worst casualties was Isobel's own steady boyfriend, Jim Bryce, who had gotten the malach from Caroline and spread it to Isobel without knowing what he was doing. He himself had been possessed by Shinichi's malach and had demonstrated al the hideous symptoms of Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome, eating away at his own lips and fingers, while poor Isobel had used dirty needles – sometimes the size of a child's knitting needles – to pierce herself in more than thirty places, besides forking her tongue with scissors. Isobel was out of the hospital and on the mend now. Still, Meredith was bewildered. She had gotten approval of the cards with enlarged, individual characters off the jars from the older Saitous – Obaasan (Isobel's grandmother) and Mrs. Saitou (Isobel's mother) – not without a good deal of argument in Japanese over each character. She was just getting into her car when Isobel had come running out of the house with a bag of Post-it Notes in her hand. â€Å"Mother did them – in case you needed,†she gasped in her new, soft, slurring voice. And Meredith had taken the notes from her grateful y, murmuring something awkward about repayment. â€Å"No, but – but may I have a look at the blow-ups?†Isobel had panted. Why was she panting so hard? Meredith wondered. Even if she'd run from the top floor al the way fol owing Meredith – that wouldn't account for it. Then Meredith remembered: Bonnie had said Isobel had a â€Å"jumpy†heart. â€Å"You see,†Isobel said with what looked like shame and a plea for understanding, â€Å"Obaasan is real y almost blind now – and it's been so long since Mother was in school†¦but I take Japanese classes right now.† Meredith was touched. Obviously, Isobel had felt it bad manners to contradict an adult when they were in earshot. But there, sitting in the car, Isobel had gone through every card with a blown-up character, writing a similar, but definitely different character on the back. It had taken twenty minutes. Meredith had been awed. â€Å"But how do you remember them al ? How do you ever write to each other?†she had blurted, after seeing the complicated symbols that differed only by a few lines. â€Å"With dictionaries,†Isobel had said, and had for the first time given a little laugh. â€Å"No, I'm serious – to write a very proper letter, say, don't you use Thesaurus and Spel Check and – â€Å" â€Å"I need those to write anything!†Meredith had laughed. It had been a nice moment, both of them smiling together, relaxed. No problems. Isobel's heart had seemed just fine. Then Isobel had hurried away and when she was gone Meredith was left staring at a round circle of moisture on the passenger seat. A tear. But why should Isobel be crying? Because it reminded her of the malach, or of Jim? Because it would take several plastic surgeries before her ears would have flesh on them again? No answer that Meredith could think of made sense. And she had to hurry to get to her own home – late. It was only then that Meredith was stricken by a fact. The Saitou family knew that Meredith, Matt, and Bonnie were friends. But none of them had asked about either Bonnie or Matt. Strange. If she had only known how much stranger her visit with her own family would be†¦

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Of Mice and Men Paper

In John Steinbeck’s novel, â€Å"Of Mice and Men†, this ambiguous question arises on George’s decision. Did George make the right choice to kill Lenny at the end of the story? There are many reasons why George decided to kill Lennie in the end; however, if George does not take the responsibility to kill Lennie, he would die anyway. Since Lennie was young, he always struggled fitting in and socializing with others because of his disability. Consequently George kills Lennie because Lennie is George’s responsibility, Lennie is a danger to society, and George kills Lennie for selfish reasons.Therefore the decision that George made was the right thing to do. First, it is George responsibility to take care of Lennie. When Lennie’s aunt dies, George makes a promise to Aunt Clara to take care of Lennie. â€Å"I told his old lady I’d take care of him. † (Steinbeck 22) George feel that he should take care of Lennie’s mess, therefore When Lennie makes bad decision, George protect him. Next, George didn’t want anyone else to kill Lennie, just like how Candy said he wished he could have shot his dog instead of someone else.George probably wouldn’t have been able to live with himself if he allowed someone to kill Lennie out of hate or maybe torture. George put Lennie in his â€Å"happy place before he dies unlike Curley who would’ve tortured Lennie. George just couldn't turn Lennie over to the police. For example what happen in weed and when Lennie break Curley’s hand but George didn’t. Also George kill because he knew that Lennie would not be able to handle being separated from him. As portrayed George Kills Lennie to protect him. Second, George did kill Lennie for selfish Reasons, because Lennie always got in trouble.He got in trouble in weed. † ‘course he ain’t mean but he gets in trouble alla time because he’s so God damn dumb. † (Steinbeck 41)Georg e kills Lennie for job security. He wants to be in no trouble and just work and get his pay† if I was alone I could live so easy. I could go get a job an’ work, an’ no trouble. No mess at all, and when the end of the month comes I could take my fifty bucks and go into town and get whatever I want. † (Steinbeck 11) And other selfish reason that pushes George to kill Lennie is that he wants freedom to do his own things to live by his own.George think life would be easy for him to live without Lennie. He said â€Å"if I was alone I could live so easy. † â€Å"I could get a job an’ not have no mess† (Steinbeck 103) with Lennie dead George can work now in peace without getting in trouble by Lennie and get that little place he was dreaming about. Lastly, Lennie’s disability is dangerous for the society. Lennie is so strong â€Å"†¦But I say he’s God damn good worker. He can put up a four hundred pound bale. † (Steinb eck 22) Lennie is so strong and he kill thing accidently. He kills Curley’s wife by mistake and he break Culrey’s hand.Lennie is childlike he like to pet soft thing just like a child. He did not understand what a terrible thing that he did, he would have to answer for her death it isn't like the mice or the puppy that could just be replaced. Lennie forget things so quickly and George is the one is going to remind him everything every time. He forgot that he did not have the word He forgot things that George tells him. And George got to remind him all the time. â€Å"o you fort hat awready, did you? I gotta tell you again do I? † (Steinbeck 4) â€Å"I forgot†¦ I tried not got forget honest to God I did, George. (Steinbeck 4) Overall there are many reasons why George decided to kill Lennie. It is George responsibility to take care of Lennie, Lennie’s disability is dangerous for the society, and George did kill Lennie for selfish Reasons. George knew w hat the future held for Lennie. He also knew that Lennie would never be able to understand what that entailed. Whatever the consequences of Lennie’s actions, George new his actions were the lesser of two evils. And the other would not understand that and there are going to kill him no matter what. So he had no choice. Therefore the decision that George made at the end of the novel was well made.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Pressures Students Face Essay

Pressures Students Face Imagine sitting in a classroom full of college students. They are from all walks of life. What could possibly be going on in the heads of those students? For instance could it be about the girl or boy that they have a crush on? Maybe they are wondering what they will do after school today? No, most of these students are working jobs to pay bills and tuition for the college they are attending. Also trying to maintain a good grade average which has to be a C or higher. These are some of the pressures that most college students have to face in this time of their lives. First, the pressures to perform academically are one of the primary causes of stress for all students. Most colleges recommend that students maintain a 2.0 GPA and a C average or better in order to keep the finical aide they received and to pass their semesters. First, coursework can be very demanding. For instance students who want to do their best and excel in school will want to make the top grades and struggle to get into graduate schools places a lot of pressure on them. If a student falls below a C average they will not pass the semester that they are taking and will lose what finical aide that was acquired for them to attend college. So keeping good grades is the main pressure they have to face besides having to pay to go to college. In addition to paying for college is another pressure that a college student has to face every year Students have to make sure there are enough funds for books, classes, supplies, and if so rooms. Many students face financial stresses. Students have to find enough money to pay for their tuition as well as getting enough funds to cover living expenses and traveling expenses back and forth while attending college. Furthermore students that have sufficient funds to pay for college still have to worry about repaying the loans that they have gotten before even graduating from college and joining the work force. Finally, being a full time student and working a full time job can be overwhelming for college students. Taking full time classes and juggling a job puts a lot of pressure on students and leaves little time for them to study and attend classes. Friedrich Nietzsche once quoted That which does not kill us makes us stronger. Meaning that if students can juggle jobs and college that will only make them stronger and better at what they do. Therefore, college students face pressures by trying to work, making sure  they maintain good grades and having enough tuition to pay for the college. Students have to face so many pressures going to college this is only a few of them. Being a full time student and working is not an easy job but people who want to get anywhere in their lives have to better their education so they can get better job opportunities. Many students with a lot of pressures just want to give up and quit at times. But as Winston Churchill once quoted Never, never, never give up. They just need to keep trying and no matter what once they graduate and have degree in their hands it will be well worth the pressures they had to endure during college.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Process Improvement Application Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Process Improvement Application - Research Paper Example The researcher states that Quality Improvement is an outline of a sequence that one needs to follow to arrive at a certain point that would define goal achievement. One can also understand QI to mean ways through which an organization can ensure client satisfaction through an offering of meritorious services. In many circumstances, healthcare facilities are so far the known organization that uses QI story more than any other organization. This does not imply that QI improvement limits its application to health practitioners. In fact, some assembly industries like motor vehicle assembly also use QI in their management system. Some of the benefits that accrue to an organization that employs a Quality Improvement management system are customer loyalty, improvement in market share, reduced service call, higher prices, and greater productivity. Any organization that uses Quality Improvement story has varied reasons for doing so. The reasons for using QI story include helping the team to o rganize, gather and analyze data in a logical fashion; monitors the teams progress; facilitates understanding by non- team members and lastly, it standardizes presentation to management. In the case of a health practitioner, he/she needs to organize the work in search a way that it clearly defines who is going to be responsible for what task. It also indicates the time one would execute the task and the duration that one would take to accomplish such kind of task. The QI story makes sure that it states how one would gather the necessary data and method for analysis of the collected data. Secondly, QI story helps one to monitor the team’s progress. The team enters whatever they have done in a format that one can identify easily or observe with ease. The management is able to evaluate and monitor the progress that the team is making from the format of presentation that QI story delivers.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

The role of the UN during the could war Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The role of the UN during the could war - Essay Example mandate it was bestowed, Krasno (4) argues that the United States Charter allocated more power to five major states, which were further given veto powers and permanent representation in what was known as the upper chamber where exclusive jurisdiction were taken into consideration. Additionally, there were six nonpermanent members who later increased to ten. As such, the charter principle of sovereign equality expected all members to abstain in their international relations from threat or forceful use against territorial integrity or any state political independence. Thus, the United Nations issued the Security Council with the responsibility of ensuring that peace and security was maintained internationally (Krasno 5). Importantly, the United Nations first role during the Cold war happened in Korea when the Korean peninsula was divided through the occupation of the Soviet occupied territory in the Northern part while the Southern part was taken over by the United States. According to Sachleben (36) the state of unrest was thought to be between Communist and non communist states, and as such the United Nations was compelled to provide international legitimacy to the United States reaction on Korean peninsula although president Truman was determined to counter the threat until 1953 when the peace was finally restored. Similarly, the United Nations was engaged in the role of ensuring that Soviet Union was not involved in the unrest in Congo after the killing of the Secretary- General Dag Hammarskjold through a plane crash. During this unrest, there was conflict between the western powers and the then President Kasavubu who was supported by the United Nations through their peace keeping mandate (Downs 14). It is worth noting that the unrest in Korea and Congo were perfect examples of how the anticipated roles of the United Nations were influenced by the East- West divisions. As such, critics have argued that it is highly likely that the United

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Webmonkey 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Webmonkey 2 - Essay Example The weightage given to each of the respective users mentioned above would be such that the portal would be accessed 85% by students, mainly current students. Then around 14% of the site’s usage would be by the course instructors and facilitators and lastly the parents of prospective students may access the site for information acquisition. This last accessing of the website would be about 1% of the site’s total access. The students would attempt to pursue information regarding the structure of programs and their respective course outlines. The details regarding the credit structure of the courses and their prospective time tables can also be pursued by prospective students. The current students would attempt to pursue their existing course enrollment possibilities by searching the list of courses there are eligible to take or those which are being offered to them. Moreover, the learning portal for the enrolled courses and the access to the virtual library would also be via the proposed system. The financial profile of the current students as well as their fee payment history would also be maintained as part of the current user profile menu and can be accessed whenever required by the students. The BSITM proposed website would be accessible to the students who have passed out. The history of their study tenure, the issuance of transcript and online library access would be available to such students. The Instructors would be handling the lecture disposition and assignment/quiz postings by students on the BSITM portal. The Instructors may even become a part of the online group discussions regarding their active courses. Other websites having similar domain topics like BSITM need to be evaluated for architectural strength. This would eventually create proper awareness of what other websites are up to. Browsing already done work often results in better thought streaming and enables generation of even better thoughts for

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Resources regarding English 1 writing Annotated Bibliography

Resources regarding English 1 writing - Annotated Bibliography Example The types of writing included on this page are cause/effect essay, comparison/contrast essay, definition essay, description essay, narration essay, persuasive essay and process analysis essay. Each page gives three to four points that should be included in this type of essay. It is a handy reference when I’m trying to figure out what to write. This site has a lot of the same information as the â€Å"Types of Writing† site, but adds to it. It discusses the types of writing in a lot more detail, so it would be helpful to come here after I have decided on the type of writing from the other site. After getting an idea of the type of paper I’m going to write, this site would fill in the details of what is expected and gives extra help on how to write an essay and many other forms of writing. This site gives very practical help on how to write a good essay for university. The author is the wife of a teacher and has a long history of editing and helping students. She points out some of the common mistakes students make and will be helpful to make my essays better. This site walks visitors through the writing process. It helps you get your ideas together, organize them neatly and put them together in an academic way. It is helpful because it gives you choices based on different answers to questions like when the topic is assigned or when no topic is assigned. This site talks about the various styles that people can write in such as a conversational style or a poetic style. It is helpful because you don’t always think about styles like this and it helps to use the right style for the kind of writing you are doing. This site gives a lot of writing help like some of the other sites I’ve found, but I think it will be most helpful for helping me find out how to do better research. It provides some resources to go to and talks about the research process. The other sites have better information about the writing

What is development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

What is development - Essay Example This is possible by empowering people through proper education, quality healthcare and training. Satisfaction of basic needs of the people is realized when people can access quality and adequate food, water, housing, clothing, justice and peace. Efficient infrastructure in education, agriculture, commerce, health, defense and transport sectors exhibit improving development. Other indicators of development are higher per capita income, political stability, quality healthcare, availability of clean, safe and adequate water as well as food. Progressive countries and societies aspire to achieve higher development status. Peet et al (2009 p.1) claimed that development is a conscious act and process of improving the life of everyone. Therefore, development covers all aspects in life that makes lives better. For example, development involves having healthy and sufficient food; safety in dwelling place; affordable goods and services; availability of employment opportunities; efficient and adequate utilities (Medicare, education, energy and transport) and being accorded respect and dignity as human being. Various actors pursue development in different spatial setting. For example, governments pursue development nationally while individuals pursue development around their environment such as the homes, villages or urban dwelling. Development is more concerned with the conditions and environment under which goods and services are produced and distributed as compared to economic growth. Economic activities and wealth generation processes give rise to economic environment. Development is also biased to socia l consequences of production and distribution of goods and services. Economic growth alone is not necessarily development especially when few powerful individuals control the growth process. This is because economic growth can concentrate wealth on the hands of the few and leave

Monday, September 9, 2019

The Summary of Economic Bubbles Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Summary of Economic Bubbles - Essay Example Economic bubbles are formed because the investors respond positive to the increasing price, i.e., they buy more with the increasing prices. This may be due to greed or a desire to become rich by selling those assets at an even higher price in the near future. In other words, buyers tend to assume that they will be able to find another buyer (sometimes referred to as â€Å"a greater fool†) who will pay them even more than they paid for the asset. These bubbles cause a little or no economic damage because usually the â€Å"greater fools† get wiser by learning from their failure and the sellers get a lot richer. However, its effects can be felt if owners of inflated assets assume themselves as rich and start spending unwisely by getting more bank loans against their overpriced assets as securities. So when the prices of the overpriced assets fall, both the loan recipient and the bank could bankrupt and suffer huge losses. On a macro level several banks may fail and lesser money is available for investments to recover the economy. Similarly when this happens due to speculation of the share prices of the company, the stock markets may eventually

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Research paper on Samuel Beckett Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

On Samuel Beckett - Research Paper Example Samuel Beckett was born and raised in a Protestant middle class home and was the son of Bill Beckett, a Quantity Surveyor and May Beckett, a Nurse (Cronin 72). At the age of 14, his parents sent him off to school which was apparently also attended by Oscar Wilde. A few years later, Beckett moved to Paris and without more ado, fell in love with the city. Upon arrival, a mutual friend introduced him to James Joyce who was a writer (Nixon 91). Having been introduced to the world of writing, Beckett wrote his very first essay at the age of 23 which was in defense of Joyce’s magnum piece against the public’s lazy demand for easy understanding (Knowlson 110). However, upon completing a study of Proust, Beckett concluded that routine and habit are the cancer of time and this led to him having some considerations regarding his life. France became the strongest factor that was to influence his spirit and style of his writings. He later gave up his post at Trinity College where h e received his B.A. Degree, and embarked on a nomadic journey across Europe. As he travelled across Europe, Beckett still wrote poems and stories while doing odd jobs to get some form of income. He finally settled down in Paris in the year 1937 after being to Germany, Ireland, England and other parts of Europe. In a rather unfortunate incident, soon after he arrived in Paris, he was stabbed in the street by a man who had asked him for money (Uhlmann 21). While in hospital, Beckett learned that he had developed a perforated lung. Beckett recovered and decided to visit his attacker in prison to question him on the attack. In the course of the World War II, he put up in Paris even subsequent to being conquered by Germans. He briefly joined the underground movement where he fought for the resistance until 1942 where he was strained to flee with his French wife to the uninhabited zone so as to avoid arrest (Connor 53). After Paris was liberated from

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Rise and fall of World Empires Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Rise and fall of World Empires - Term Paper Example Just like numerous other empires of its time, the Roman Empire relied heavily on agriculture to boost its economy. The empire owned large tracts of agricultural land that not only provided food for the urban population but which also offered employment to a large section of individuals in the empire. The surplus food gotten from the agricultural sector was used for trade with other nations in the region. In order to facilitate trade, an extensive road network was built in the region and this made the region to have one of the best transport infrastructures in the region. This infrastructure enabled commerce in the region to flourish something that led into the region’s economic stability (Maddison 12).  Ã‚   The Roman Empire trade and economic prosperity enhanced during the Pax Romana era, the empires well laid road and sea network made it ideal for merchants to go to every region belonging to the Roman Empire. However, this network was not stable since after the Pax Romana ended, merchants were no longer assured of their safety of their goods while in transit. The collapse of the Pax Romana and the expansion that they had engineered also brought to an end the loss of the loot that came out of the numerous conquests engineered by the emperor, and this in many ways accelerated the collapse of the emperor (Maddison 13).  Ã‚   In order to fund their operations, the different emperors would occasionally alter laws and come up with varied currencies something that brought chaos in the empire.  Ã‚  

Friday, September 6, 2019

The Effects of the Iraq War Essay Example for Free

The Effects of the Iraq War Essay The war in Iraq was supposedly an act against terrorism. In one of the President’s speeches, he made it clear that it was a preemptive attack and that if we were not fighting and destroying this enemy in Iraq, they would not be idle. They would be plotting and killing Americans across the world and within our own borders. By fighting these terrorists in Iraq, Americans in uniform are defeating a direct threat to the American people†(Crimes Against Humanity). This is the government’s claim but it was never substantiated by any evidence, thus keeping the Americans wondering what really is the cause of this massive bloodshed. Some reports say that this war is in large part an oil currency war. â€Å"One of the core reasons for this upcoming war is this administrations goal of preventing further Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) momentum towards the euro as an oil transaction currency standard†(Mother Jones). In order to stop the OPEC from doing this, the US needed to take control of the OPEC’s 2nd largest oil producer, Iraq. This means that the Iraq War is just another economic war. It is just another result of the struggle to control the means of production. The â€Å"domestic impact of any US war will be inequitably distributed, the workers and lowest economic classes carrying the burden of the social costs, while the upper strata benefit†(Swans). Even before the Iraq war, experts have already concluded that powerful corporate interests only see middle class families as the spoils of political influence (FromTheWilderness. com). When war struck, the burden was heavily felt by these same families. The additional burden came in the form of taxes. To maintain the Iraq war the government imposed additional taxes on the people disguised as national security taxes. This tax is imposed on all persons, however the effect on the upper class is not as drastic as to the middle class families simply because since they are the ones who can afford to pay and benefit from the big tax cuts. These taxes in addition to the economic pressures on the middle class—stagnant wages, the need to pull down two salaries to support a family, and the rising costs of the basic expenses—drive these families to turn to credit just to make ends meet. Credit in itself is neither bad nor is it taboo but the present state of the country prevents the middle class families from ever recovering (FromTheWilderness. com). The Iraq war brought about a change not merely on financial aspects but also in the way Americans perceive things. It has awakened the people’s social consciousness. Due to the doubtful claims the government are using to justify the war coupled with the suffering of the middle class, the masses are starting to wonder and ponder on the real issues that they are presently facing. A sense of awareness has donned on them, the people are slowly gearing towards social change. Having the freedom of intercourse, the people are slowly unearthing the reasons behind the war, the cause of their social helplessness and the means or solutions they are entitled to. Americans are becoming inquisitive, they are slowly transforming into persons naturally drawn to activism and sympathetic to an anti-war attitude and the Iraq War will present a new challenge of exposing the propaganda promoted by American imperialists, and in building an opposition (Swans). The change the Americans are experiencing after the war is neither bad nor good. It is a just a natural reaction brought about by the need for social justice and equity. Social justice is the concept of society in which justice is achieved in every aspect of society, rather than merely the administration of law. It is generally thought of as a society that affords individuals and groups fair treatment and a just share of the benefits of society. The Iraq war is not the sole cause of this change, several social forces are at work here but it may very well be considered as one of the factors that triggered it. After years of following the capitalist norm, the uneven distribution of wealth and power between the classes is already taking its toll. The delineation of the social classes is becoming clearer, each class is grouping itself together and yet, each one is dependent upon the other, without the bourgeoisies there would be no proletariat, without the proletariat there would be no cause for awareness, without a cause there can be no change. The social classes are now playing their important roles in this changes, they are setting the stage for their struggle. The United States is experiencing social change and it is inevitable. According to Neo-Marxism, strains are inherent in social structures and the source of these strains or contradictions is the inherent scarcity of certain goods and values. Thus inequality is a source of conflict. The conflicts caused by the inequality of the classes are starting to show. The ghost of communism is slowly rearing its head in our country. The Americans are preparing to experience a class struggle. The middle class is slowly becoming aware of the distribution of wealth and power between the masses and the selected few, they are realizing the exploitation of their class by a selected few using the government as an instrument. The country is now at the brink of a social revolution, just as how all revolutions came to be, the birth begins with the proletariat’s struggle with the bourgeoisie. At first the contest is carried on by individual labourers, then by the workpeople of a factory, then by the operatives of one trade, in one locality, against the individual bourgeois who directly exploits them and eventually the rise to power of the middle class. At this point however, the movement’s success cannot be ascertained. The thinking masses is too small to resemble a threat to imperialism but a war gone badly might alter public thinking enough to make such fundamental social change an increasing possibility. The ideas of Communism are based on actual relations springing from an existing class struggle, from a historical movement going on since time immemorial, it seeks to abolish property relations and to place power on to the working class (Mondo Politico). According to Karl Marx, this is the end result of all modern governments. Everything shall start from the bourgeois controlling first the modes of production hiring the proletariat only for labor, later on educating the proletariat so the bourgeois can use the knowledge endowed to the working class to remain competitive. Greed being the driving force, the bourgeois shall continue to teach and exploit the proletariat. Through this process, what the bourgeoisie, therefore, produces, above all, is its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable. Communism is definitely an ideal type of government, it speaks of utopia where social justice reigns supreme and equity can never be flawed. The question now is that how come there is no country that has successfully established a perfect communist government? This might be caused by the degree of difficulty of implementing the transformation or it may be that eventually all systems shall need property relations of some kind. At this point, the social revolution in the United States is pretty far from fruition. Not all of the working class is willing to undergo change. After the United States has existed for so long, after having been accustomed to it and after achieving so much through capitalism, the premature abolition of property relations shall definitely cause its own downfall.

Thursday, September 5, 2019

SWOT Analysis OF NIKE

SWOT Analysis OF NIKE Partial fulfillment by the award of the post graduate diploma in business Management. From Fortune School of Technology and Management in Singapore. Nike Inc. was founded in  1962 by Bill Bower man and Philip H.  Knight as a  partnership under the  name, Blue  Ribbon Sports.  Since Germany conquered  the domestic market in America, Nike came with low-cost and high quality products for the American people. Today, Nike manufactures and distributes athletic shoes in the global market and 40% of  its sales come from athletic apparel, sports equipment,and subsidiary ventures and they have  traditional  as  well  as  nontraditional  distribution  channels  in  more  than  100countries globally. Nike has attained a premier position in the market but in 1998, the company has to face the issue of exploiting overseas workers and the altering consumer  needs negatively pretentious the sales of Nike. In this report, I have discussed the case history of Nike that majorly covers the child labor  problem and the problem of change in consumers preferences after which I have done the SWOT analysis and hav e come up with strategic objectives, market driven strategy Objectives. Furthermore, the marketing strategy is discussed that covers the segmentation strategy, targeting, positioning and channel distribution of Nike and the product, price and promotional strategy it must approve.  In the  end, I  have given some  recommendations to Nikes management to force it towards success. Contents INTRODUCTION: The company Nike has establish its brand with lot of efforts today almost all knows about Nike it is a world famous brand with a good reputation. Knight called his first shoe Tiger and began allocation at path meet. Blue Ribbon in 1971 earned its Swoosh and knight introduces the most important Nike brand line. In 1978 the Blue Ribbon becomes Nike and both years their earnings grow steadily. Due to Nike attention in informal shoes in the 1980, they missed the leaning to aerobic shoe and cut down after allowing Reebok to manage the marketplace. MISSION AND VISION: Nike states in its mission declaration that it entail responsibility commerce in a guilty way, most important to sustainable monetary increase. With the advance in knowledge, Human resource practices, the healthy knowledgeable and skilled employment power, here is extremely small deficient to distinguish organization. Living being seen to go added than the lowest amount necessary on community issue can draw and keep patrons. This bottle sea green modification attracts concentration to the association; they are view as thoughtful and public liable (Mullins, L. 2005). A speech, on the construction put into practice of Nike during its make obtainable sequence accuse the association of individual concerned in limited operational circumstances, defiance of hard work civil rights, low salary and pestering of its labor force. Nike takes this information seriously. On the basis of the learning answer the business has make stronger the check of its dealer (Hummels, H and Timmer, D.2004) OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: Provide an environment which develops people to maximize their contribution to NIKE. Identify focused consumer segment opportunities. Provide quality and innovative services and products internally and externally Establish and nurture relevant emotional ties with consumer segments. Maximize profits. SWOT ANALYSIS: Strengths Nike is a very competitive organization. Phil Knight (Founder and CEO) is frequently quoted as saying that Business is war without bullets. Nike has a healthy aversion of is competitors. At the Atlanta Olympics, Reebok went to the outlay of sponsoring the games. Nike did not. However Nike sponsored the top athletes and gained valuable reporting. Nike has no factories. It does not tie up cash in buildings and manufacturing workers. This makes a very lean organization. Nike is tough at research and development, as is evidenced by its evolving and innovative product range. They then manufacture wherever they can produce high quality product at the lowest possible price. If prices rise, and products can be made more cheaply elsewhere (to the same or better specification), Nike will move production. (ynkamat, 2009) Nike is a global brand. It is the number one sports brand in the World. Its famous Swoosh is instantly familiar, and Phil Knight even has it tattooed on his ankle Nike is quite strong regarding its research and development; quite marked regarding its evolving and innovative product choice. They manufacture high quality at the lowest potential price, if prices rise due to price hike then the production process is made cheaper by changing the place of production. It belongs to the  Fortune 500 companies. Nike employs about more than 30.000 people worldwide. It has a strong sense of marketing promotion by sponsoring top athletes. It uses linarite foam and flies wire materials in order to make the manufactured shoes lighter and more convenient. (Adam, 2009) Its standing for high quality and innovative footwear .Nike is also known for its innovative marketing .Nike ads are part of the pop culture an impressive achievement. Famous campaigns feature bo Jackson, Michael Jordon, and Tiger Woods the Nikes swoosh is highly recognizable world wide .Nikes recent comeback has been greatly helped by increased sales of Nikes apparel. (Robert N. Lussier, 2009) Political Analysis According to PEST analysis the political enviourment can be taken as strength The government must create economic policies that will foster the growth of businesses. Nike, fortunately, has been helped by the US policies which enable it to advance its products. The support accorded to Nike by the US government, particularly in the general macroeconomic stability, low interest rates, stable currency conditions and the international competitiveness of the tax system, form the foundation critical to Nikes growth. (Cuizon, 2009) Society Analysis According to PEST analysis the social enviourment can be taken as strength People are more health conscious currently. Diet and health are getting more prominence. Consequently, more and more people are joining fitness clubs. There is an accompanying demand for fitness products particularly exercise apparel, shoes and equipment. Nike is at the front position of this surge in demand as people are looking for sports shoes, apparel and equipment. (Cuizon, 2009) Technology Analysis Political Analysis According to PEST analysis the technological enviourment can be taken as strength Nike uses IT in its marketing information systems very effectively. Nike applies marketing information systems to the economics of improvement, segmentation and differentiation for nearly all of its businesses. Nikes leadership status owes in large part to the use of extremely valuable Information Technology, and applying it to every aspect of the product from development to distribution. Nike, being the world leader in the athletic footwear industry, is able to effectively harness its environment to boost its marketing efforts. This strategy has translated into robust sales of Nikes products. (Cuizon, 2009) Weaknesses The organization does have a diversified range of sports products. However, the income of the business is still heavily dependent upon its share of the footwear market. This may leave it vulnerable if for any reason its market share erodes. The retail sector is very price sensitive. Nike does have its own retailer in Nike Town. However, most of its income is derived from selling into retailers. Retailers tend to offer a very similar experience to the consumer. Can you tell one sports retailer from another? So margins tend to get squeezed as retailers try to pass some of the low price competition pressure onto Nike. Nike was for quite some time unwilling to disclose any type of information concerning its partnering companies. It was charged with the violation of overtime and  minimum wage  rates in Vietnam, 1996, that was seen as having poor working conditions, and that it was also charged for exploiting cheap workforce overseas. (ynkamat, 2009) Nike was also reported to have applied child labor in Pakistan and Cambodia to produce  soccer balls. It was positioned as a subject of criticism by anti-globalization groups due to its unruly and exploited manner that was quite a disaster for its reputation. (Adam, 2009) In late 2005 founder phil knight resigned from the CEO position at Nike. Since that time Nike has had two CEO s. Nike brand co president mark parker is the companies new president and chief executive officer following the resignation of William D. Perez will Nike ever be able to replace the larger than life founder Phil knight? Another question on the area concerning is that global sales, such as Europe and Asia ,have instead at a much faster pace than domestic sales in the United States. (Robert N. Lussier, 2009) Economic Analysis According to PEST analysis the economic enviourment can be taken as weakness In economy, the biggest threat for Nike would be economic recession. During recession, Nikes growth will be adversely affected. The US economy is experiencing a downturn right now. Consumer purchases are slowing down. Currently, Nikes feeling the pinch of the economic recession. The Asian economic crisis also affects Nike since its goods are manufactured in Asia. The labor costs and material prices are going up. Nikes growth is not just affected by the local economy but also in the international economy. A weak Euro and an Asian recession could mean weak sales for Nike. The overall results in the sales generated by Nike in athletic footwear, however, remained stable. The global market makes up for the variances in sales particularly between peak and lean seasons. (Cuizon, 2009) Society Analysis According to PEST analysis the social enviourment can be taken as weakness Nike, however, failed to foresee problems brought about by a sweatshop expose pertaining to labor and factory conditions at production locations in Asia. This caused bad publicity and declining sales as society and consumers Opportunities Product development offers Nike many opportunities. The brand is fiercely defended by its owners whom truly believe that Nike is not a fashion brand. However, like it or not, consumers that wear Nike product do not always buy it to participate in sport. Some would argue that in youth culture especially, Nike is a fashion brand. This creates its own opportunities, since product could become unfashionable before it wears out i.e. consumers need to replace shoes. There is also the opportunity to develop products such as sport wear, sunglasses and jewellery. Such high value items do tend to have associated with them, high profits. The business could also be developed internationally, building upon its strong global brand recognition. There are many markets that have the disposable income to spend on high value sports goods. For example, emerging markets such as China and India have a new richer generation of consumers. There are also global marketing events that can be utilized to support the brand such as the World Cup (soccer) and The Olympics. (ynkamat, 2009) The brand is sternly defended by its owners who believe that Nike is not a fashion brand, however, a large number of consumers wear Nike product because they derive a fashion  trend  rather than to participate in a sport. It is mostly argued that in youth culture, Nike is a fashion brand which also creates  opportunities  for Nike since its products would become outdated before even the product wears out i.e. consumers will feel the need to replace the product with a newer  trend. There are many international regions that still need tapping and there is need for sportswear and with Nikes strong global brand recognition, it can initiate in many markets that have the disposable income to spend on high value sports goods. Nike gives a lot of effort on its corporate marketing mainly through the  promotion of  corporate brand  and sponsorship agreements. (Adam, 2009) Nike has an opportunity to capitalize on its own Nike Technology. This is a sensor placed in Nike footwear that interacts with Apples iPod to record the distance a runner has completed and the calories that have been burned. Another opportunity will be to capitalize on an endorsement deal with LeBorn James after his NBA playoffs and championship series appearances. Additionally, Tiger woods yearly attempt to win all four major Golf Tourments automatically allows Nike to build product campaigns around the Tournaments. (Robert N. Lussier, 2009) Threats Nike is exposed to the international nature of trade. It buys and sells in different currencies and so costs and margins are not stable over long periods of time. Such an exposure could mean that Nike may be manufacturing and/or selling at a loss. This is an issue that faces all global brands. The market for sports shoes and garments is very competitive. The model developed by Phil Knight in his Stamford Business School days (high value branded product manufactured at a low cost) is now commonly used and to an extent is no longer a basis for sustainable competitive advantage. Competitors are developing alternative brands to take away Nikes market share. As discussed above in weaknesses, the retail sector is becoming price competitive. This ultimately means that consumers are shopping around for a better deal. So if one store charges a price for a pair of sports shoes, the consumer could go to the store along the street to compare prices for the exactly the same item, and buy the cheaper of the two. Such consumer price sensitivity is a potential external threat to Nike. (ynkamat, 2009) Consumers are constantly shopping around for a better deal that conveys a good quality and if one store charges a higher price for the products, the consumer would try to seek a better deal of the same product in the premises that delivers the same value but cheaper of the two, this type of price sensitivity among the consumers is a potential threat to Nike. The textile industry unpleasantly upsets the atmosphere, and therefore the organization is constantly struggling to retain its eco-friendly reputation. A recession may lead to job shortages in most of Nikes worldwide branches. The organization has experienced many adverse publicity feedbacks due to its widespread advertising If you have a body, you are an athlete   Bill Bower man said this couple of decades ago. The guy was right. It defines how he viewed the world, and it defines how Nike pursues its destiny. Ours is a language of sports, a universally understood lexicon of passion and competition. A lot has happened at Nike in the 30 years (Adam, 2009) Specific threat is the contracts that Reebok (now part of Adidas) signed with the NBA and NFL for its apparel businesses. Another threat is the ongoing public relationship s problem pertaining to working environments in the factories producing Nike sneakers. Nike has striven to overcome images of sweatshop conditions, but the problem has been difficult to solve. (Robert N. Lussier, 2009) Porters five forces Source:(http://www.google.co.in/images?hl=enq=porters+5+diagramum=1ie=UTF8source=univei=8UhZTfaOCoXJrQfarcnuBwsa=Xoi=image_result_groupct=titleresnum=1ved=0CCIQsAQwAAbiw=1366bih=643) Potential Entrants Low Bargaining power of buyers High Bargaining power of suppliers Low Threats of substitutes Low Industries rivalry High Refer to appendix 1 CONCLUSION: SWOT analysis should always be measured by all companies as it helps show companies all their weaknesses and threats. At the same time it also shows what the companies strengths and opportunities. Using this analysis companies can spotlight on their good part of the business and focus more on the bad part to make it good. Also a company can see what factors are external or internal which helps the business in a long run to be more capable REFERENCES Adam, 2009. Nike SWOT Analysis. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK http://www.mba-tutorials.com/marketing/240-nike-swot-analysis.html http://www.mba-tutorials.com/marketing/240-nike-swot-analysis.html [Accessed February 2011]. angeletti3, 2005. Nike versus Adidas Case Study and Competitive Analysis. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK http://www.echeat.com/essay.php?t=27606 http://www.echeat.com/essay.php?t=27606 [Accessed February 2011]. Cuizon, G., 2009. Marketing Audit of Nikes Strategies. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK http://www.suite101.com/content/marketing-audit-of-nikes-strategies-a94402 http://www.suite101.com/content/marketing-audit-of-nikes-strategies-a94402 [Accessed February 2011]. E, P.M., 1998. In Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. Free Press. Gerry Johnson, K.S.W., 2008. In P. Education, ed. Exploring Corporate Strategy. 7th ed. Phil Knight, 2011. Company History. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK http://www.nike.com/nikeihm/about/history.shtml http://www.nike.com/nikeihm/about/history.shtml . Robert N. Lussier, D.K., 2009. Applied Sport Management Skills. Human Kinetics. ynkamat, 2009. SWOT of Nike. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK http://www.scribd.com/doc/13163456/swot-of-nike http://www.scribd.com/doc/13163456/swot-of-nike [Accessed February 2011].