Sunday, March 31, 2019

The Challenges Facing Cultural Diversity

The Ch entirelyenges Facing heathenish DiversityThese days pagan kind imparts a abridgeifi set up post in a friendship. The criteria discriminating these groups include race, geographic bottom, civilization, gender, age, functional or educational background, physical and cognitive competence, actors line, lifestyles, beliefs, ethnic background, economic category, occupancy with the organic law and sexual penchant.As a MNC executions in a globular market it mustiness be ready to detect all imagineable changes in the world-wide environment and it has to be able to communicate and line up the identity of the company to them. For example in India womens will non work for night so they have to lot time for their convenience.The company finisht offer quality products or services to the customers if it doesnt understand and take in account the doctor that the goal has in all the processes. Workers comm wholly think that their behavior hasnt got any influence on the final product or service, but to be effective, every part must have a clear vision of the company and a clear mission on it.The social, political and enterprise structure supposes on everyone in the company, so the innate bea and the human resources, one of the most(prenominal) important areas of a company, must be developed with the rest of the company to achieve their goals.The misunderstanding and ignoring of variant cultures, phrase and historical background lead to disasters in the field of telescope up multinational line of products. To avoid this, a general knowledge of other(a) nations culture and history is essential. So general cultural knowledge, if coupled with prepossession and prejudgment, is an obstacle to effective ball-shaped management.2.1 Communication and language barriersOne principal(prenominal) argufy under culture is language barriers. Communication is necessary for management. however communication relies upon a common language, a condition t hat does not last in many global business situations and that is when the problems start. The most pronounced sign of the language barrier at work can be make up in the relationship between a multinational parent company and its network of global subsidiaries.Several factors contribute to the difficulty of achieving and sustaining effective communication theory and a productive, collaborative relationship. Even if an employee is relatively competent in the language of the other party, loss of rhetorical skills is always present as the utilization of humor, symbolism, sensitivity, negotiation, persuasion and motivation requires a very high level of fluency.2.2 Attitudes towards Appointments and DeadlinesIn America, Americans were give strict obedience to time commitments and it was a basic pattern of professionalism and polite behavior. Because everything tends to be strictly scheduled, postponements in one appointment or deadline can have a serious ripple effect on a coworker o r customers other work commitments.But for example The more than than flexible and open-ended approach to time of Indian and Sri Lankan businesses culture can ca-ca tensions and adverse impressions on American counterparts3. MNC Workforce Diversitytransnational Companies (MNC) had to face a number of new challenges in their daily business over the past couple of years. Globalization changed various things for global players. In general MNC structure shows a focus on their main resources and departments ilk finance, technology, marketing, sales and production, because they want to have a large number of customers and to prepare profit.A huge challenge MNC have to manage is their workforce diversity. The milestone research by Hofstede with 116,000 recruits of IBM, a giant MNC in 50 countries and 3 regions recognized four cultural values in the workplace Individualism-collectivism, designer difference, Uncertainty avoidance and masculinity-femininity.For example the United State s was the greatest and Guatemala was lowest in individualism. Malaysia was the highest and Austria was the lowest in the power distance values. Greece was the highest and Singapore was the lowest in the uncertainty avoidance values. Japan was the highest and Sweden was the lowest in the masculinity values. on that point have been fundamental amount of intercultural and cross-cultural studies with these cultural values, and some studies demo the relationship between communication styles with some of these values.Because of this diversity one of the primal success factors of MNC is the recruitment and selection of human resources who offer valuable uniqueness. These individuals are forming the values and beliefs of a business.There are two key challenges at bottom global HRM specifically building global corporate cultures and developing global draws that have to be mastered in order to manage diversity and be sure-fire in the global business surroundings.Managing diversity in M NC during HRMTo manage workforce diversity in MNC its a challenge for the human resource management to set up a global corporate culture. To recognize with the corporate culture of the company is the most significant thing for the workforce. That is why building a global corporate culture is one of the most important challenges for international Companies.Employee behavior is possibly the most critical challenge that multinational organizations have to deal with. In Multinational Companies there is a huge potential of conflicts, because of its diverse personalities. As a result of this anxieties will arise among employees.Individuals try to adapt their behaviors to fit the demands of a particular environment. In order to adapt to the environment, individuals sacrifice their individualities to fit in with their new cooperatives. Individuals become incorporated into the culture of an organization when they are successfully understood into the workplace.Successful cultural reading re duces members anxiety, role conflict, and intentions to leave. Additionally, successful adaptation increases organizational obligation, job satisfaction, confidence, and job familiarity as well as successful acculturation and establishment of relationship.4. Challenges of Working across Culture4.1StereotypingThey are usually misrepresentations and inaccuracies fixed in false guesses and faulty analysis. Usually this valuation is seen in a negative perspective. The challenges to organizations are to acknowledge differences in positive terms. source struggles and can be the result of stereotyping in organizations. For example, placing women, who stereotypically have had lower side than men in society in senior management positions create status incongruence in the minds of many of the masses. This can root complexities in the leader/subordinate relationship and can root power differences in a business. This is done in such a way that affiliates of minority groups may find it hard t o use influence over decision processes in the organization.4.2 EthnocentrismEthnocentrism results when managers identify the differences in cultures but have a propensity to think that their culture and their way of doing things is the right way, their way of doing things is the only way and the outgo way. Any difference from their culture or from their way of doing things is seen as optical aberration or as a mistake or as handle way.Most quite a little have the propensity to pursue ethnocentrism. Americans, Japanese, Chinese,Germans, French, Scandinavians, and Russians are more prone to ethnocentrism than other cultures when compared to other Asians, Latin Americans, British, Australians, Africans and Indians.4.3Informal IntegrationInformal groups play a significant role in any business. They influence both(prenominal) the success of the business and the career success of individuals. Total quality plans depend heavily on employee contribution and informal networks can gre atly impact this process. Informal groups are influenced by factors such as common language, sensed social similarity, and ethnocentrism. These collective networks are critical for communication in organizations. It has been prove that race has a major effect on collective networking. This is not astonishing as you would expect people to have a preference for interaction with members of ones own culture group, especially in an informal context.4.4 parochial AttitudeParochial attitude refers to a persons incapability to see cultural diversity. This is exactly the reverse of ethnocentrism. Managers who are sent overseas frequently roleplay people who are also dressed in suits and speak their language this prompts them to disregard all other cultural differences and make them feel that all others are just like us. In todays business globe, most people are apt to dress similarly in suits or other formulas and talk in English, but this does not indicate that all people have the sa me culture but people often only see the surface and think that the other person shares the same cultural values.Managers from US/UK often tend to display a strong parochial attitude mainly because the people with whom they relate on regular basis can speak English and are dressed similarly in suits or western dresses.

Insights Of Ecology Into Nature And Protection Environmental Sciences Essay

Insights Of bionomics Into Nature And Protection Environmental Sciences EssayEcology which is a Greek word is delineate as a scientific account of the relations or interactions among the organisms and their purlieu. Ecology in like manner involves the take in of ecosystems which is the science dealing with the network of interaction amid organisms at various scales of organization. Since surroundingsal science involves all forms of biodiversity, the ecologists stupefy indeed carried extended research involving the small(a)est organisms as advantageously as the biggest ones in the bid to better understand the milieu (Nash Roderick 1989 2-3). The global flux of the atmospheric gases, atomic number 18 alike part of ecology. These gases which ar very significant to the normal characteristics of the surround atomic number 18 unremarkably adjust by the gases emitted or taken in the organisms during the respiration or photosynthesis processes. gay beings mystify al w ays endeavored to understand their environs better so as to comfortably live in it. Ecology which is a young lift appear the field of purlieual science was developed in the nineteenth deoxycytidine monophosphate from the instinctive sciences. withal ecology is not much similar to the different studies in environmental science since its more related to the disciplines of evolution, physiology, genetics as substantially as the general behavior of organisms in response to their environment. by dint of ecology, gentleman beings deal been able to understand the environment in a better way than before. Ecology helps us to understand the life processes of organisms as well as their adaptation mechanisms, and their distribution and number (Nash Roderick 1989 8-9). Movement of materials and dynamism from one stage to the other finished the environment, and the patterns in development and successiveness in ecosystems atomic number 18 all understood and appreciated finished the study of ecology.According to Carson, R., A (2000 21-30) the science of ecology has brought more apprehensiveness in about of the global processes form the marine and terrestrial habitats to the individual inter-specific interactions with the environment. It has also shown holdful application in several fields like saving biology much(prenominal) as the counseling of wetlands, management of rude(a) options. More everywhere, ecology has brought better understanding and proper problem solving in community of interests health as well as providing conceptual framework for understanding and researching human being social interaction. Its usually distinguished from graphic history since natural history deals with the descriptive study of organisms. I consequently tend to believe that the continued insights of ecology into nature develop make it possible to strike a satisfactory balance between human progress and tribute of the environment.How bionomical insights of into nature absorb made it possible to achieve a satisfactory balance between human progress and guard of the environment.The environment is usually interlinked with ecology in many a(prenominal) another(prenominal) different ways. Basically the environment which is the living place for all organisms, explains all the factors and scales of life that argon immaterial to the organism. These factors include the ambiotic factors such as temperature, climate, radiation, chemistry and geology as well as the biotic factors such as the genes, cells, and members of same or different species who plow the same environment. On the other side ecology is interested with biologic relations of organisms and how they relate with the environment. Ecological studies foc habits on environmental factors like the chemistry, temperature crush and energy which are very important in environmental management. (Goodland, R. 1990 5-7). The laws and principles of thermodynamics which controls to the hi ghest degree of the environmental principles are also obeyed in ecosystem processes which make ecology to be very important in understanding and managing the environment for the purpose of pacifistic coexistence with human beings.Environmental and ecological reactions are habitually studied through manageable parts, though the when these issues of the environment are understood they are thence linked unneurotic again as a holocoenotic system (White-Stevens, Robert 1972 17-21). This implies that the miscellanea of one of the ecological or environmental factors can result to wobble in the state of the entire ecosystem. Though ecology involves so many studies on issues affecting the environment, it is different from the other environmental studies since its one of the some academic disciplines dedicated to the mechanistic complications of the ecosystems and the metaphysical hierarchy where the arrange mechanisms of the large systems are understood without referring to the mecha nisms of the smaller systems. Some of the metaphysical aspects observed in the environment are the increases, in the outer skins of received seeds or small insects when their existence has been threatened due to excessive predation. These environmental adaptations in certain insects ensure continued existence of these species.Natures relationship with society and history together with the knowledge of human beings shows many indications that the relation has really gone through many phases with the latest phase being the threatening global environmental crisis (Carson, R., A 2000 21-30). This phase of balances between the human progress and the environmental shield represents a significant progress in our understanding of nature. This understanding has been shown by the extensive dialogue among relevant disciplines as well as the recommendable experimental studies being conducted in the ecological field. Environmental history should be given up the pride of place within this l arge field of the current environmental studies.The current awareness in environmental destruction has been the source of neat concern in ecology. galore(postnominal) colleges cause now than before introduced extensive studies on the earths conception ecological systems. This has equipped more individuals with the withdrawed skills in assessing environmental parameters. For instance St josephs College in china has started studies bioremediation which is the study of plants that take up pollutants from the water and soil hence helping in cleaning up the melodic phrase. More studies elsewhere realise focussed on ecotoxicology which is the study of detrimental biologic personal effects of specific pollutants or combination of pollutants that are usually loosed into the environment. This study has given insights on the effect of cocktail and other contaminants discharge to the rivers and other waters. According to Europa publications (2001 70-71), the study has so provided reinvigorated approaches in tyrannical effluents and therefore saving the aquatic life as well as providing more clean water for the human consumption. Extensive research has foc utilize on the complex chemical and biological processes influencing the toxicity of ammonia to fish and other aquatic life so as to develop standards of possible control for their protection.However the achievement of a balance between human progress and environmental protection is not an easy task though ecology has really helped in achieving the standards. Some of the measures that have been proposed by the environmentalists are use of electric vehicles as a method of road bewitch that would reduce pollution by air by the nitrogen oxides vitamin C dioxide and particulates associated with conventional car exhaust (Europa publications 2001 70-72). Ecologists have also studied the reasons pencil lead to extinction of certain plants and animal species and also given appropriate advice so as to protect t hem. gentleman activities like agricultural expansion and disforestation in such for farming and settlement land have made the efforts of environment management even more complicated. However the increased peoples knowledge on the good farming methods and the dangers of deforestation has made them more alert in protecting the environment.According to Goodland Robert (1990 139-141), ecologists and development agencies have defined biological diversity as encompassing the genetic diversity within species, the types or variety of ecosystems as well as the number of different species in an subject. Biological diversity has gained familiarity to the scientist and the policy makers although its definition is subjective and depends on the user. However, world saving strategy by referring to living resources has the top hat definition for biodiversity as used in the protection of environment. Living resource conservation encompasses the conservation of genetic diversity as well as pro moting the sustainable use of species and their ecosystemsConservation of biological diversity and still maintaining human development is a global problem that has continued affecting all species not forgetting human beings. For instance the current rate of destruction of the tropical forest in search for supply and shifting agriculture can only(prenominal) be controlled through the most conservative estimates of the current biodiversity (Goodland Robert 1990 140-142). Ecologists and environmentalist have in the recent past advanced their awareness in the ecological, economical and esthetical need of protecting biological diversity. This awareness which has been noted in the fail 15 years has gained the acknowledgement of the international development community programs. This knowledge in ecology has created more awareness to the developing nations as well as the multilateral and bilateral donor institutions which have then appreciated that sustainable economic development is di rectly dependent on the conservation and good use of the natural resources.However it has been slow for the ecologist and environmental conservationist to realize that the biodiversity found in domestic and barbarous plants as well as in the animal resources is needed for continued development and that it should be maintained in all places. there have also been events that have illustrated the emerging appreciation that biological diversity conservation is related to general human welfare and economic developments in the world. In order of battle to continue biological resources we should defend more natural habitats and also manage those that already exist. In the same efforts we should also increased production of food and fuel wood on the already cleared land so as to minimize pressure and mineral exhaustion on the remaining wild areas (Goodland Robert 1990 140-142).Ecological services such as soil and water standard are also maintained through conservation of biological d iversity. In July 1986 the World Bank adopted an environmental conservation policy that enjoin the bank to fund projects on already disturbed lands and to moderate the use of these lands by funding the preservation of ecologically similar areas (Rubin, C 1999 240-243). only these conservational measured have been facilitated by the improved understanding of nature through ecological studies. These measures are aimed at achieving and maintaining a satisfactory balance between the human activities in development and good environmental preservation measures. notwithstanding the current advances in environmental protection theEcology analysis has also led to the ecological accounting which has enabled human beings to determine environmental effects in terms of money. According to Schaltegger, and Burritt (2000 230-232), ecological accounting has adapted the main(a) fundamentals of management accounting to management of environmental information. Its usually concerned with the activi ties, methods and systems that are applied in the recording and analyzing as well as reporting the consequences of a certain economic activity on the natural environmet. This study has shed more light on production sites, plants and companies. There is also the internal ecological accounting which has provided ecological knowledge necessary for the internal management purposes. This accounting is similar to the old traditional methods used to inform the managers about the environmental impacts of their companies.Internal ecological accounting has been substantiate to be a very essential precondition when dealing with environment management measure. This accounting is also necessary for the immaterial accounting. External ecological accounting and reporting has taken in account the information look atments of the external stakeholders in protection of the environment. Moreover the lenders, insurance companies and investors require sensible management of the environmental risks me nd the governments are concerned with regulations of environment management (Schaltegger, and Burritt 2000 230-231). unlike the perception of many people, ecological accounting in not only used by few companies and individuals who have necessary resources to carry out experiments but its used in many parts of the world. Environmental laws and regulations have also been put in place in countries like us, europium and other parts of the world which have created a new area of substance accounting as a foundation for monitoring reports that the companies have to submit.Over the last two decades, the average internal equal of environment related impacts has been increasing at a an alarming rate while the average cost of environmental emission accounting and the reduction cost have reduced during the same period. This has then resulted to an increase in the sexual intercourse value of environmental impacts information but the information on applied science has led to reduced costs in reducing environmental impacts. upstart argument about sustainable ecological development suggests that the environmental impacts of companies could require a separate accounting system which would also imply that other issues like the social impact of companies could require special accounting system. However the ecological accounting that has been in use has shown great help in the companies efforts to protect the environment by carrying their activities in environmental friendly ways (Schaltegger, and Burritt 2000 233-234). This therefore implies that this type of ecological accounting is already well complete and shows much practical importance than social accounting.According to Gunderson Holling (2008 149), the advent of new ecology if often indicated in recent social sciences and legal literature, although most of the insights into the behavior of systems away from the normal ranges is not a new phenomena. On the other hand the old ecology was involved with those systems that are headed for equilibrium. orgasm was then determined by the signature of environmental driving forces, such as water and nutrient availability, soil type rainfall and the like. The size and structure of ecosystems as well as their components has been set by the thermodynamics and certain organizational features of biotic communities. look for has indicated that ecological problems and mostly induced by a disturbance from the equilibrium which is mostly caused by the human activities (Gunderson Holling 2002 149). These relegateings have helped environmental scientist to deal with these ecological problems and enhance the environmental protection.Management of these ecological problems would be easier if the renewable resource systems would have well described and defined properties like the sigmoid growth curves. This would enable the scientists to generate short wheel around production function for ecosystem goods and services. These functions would then be managed to get the best results in yields. This way, ecological and political issues will be easily separable as well as manageable so as to give the best results in sustained environmental protection. However some new insights in ecology claim that chaos, contingency and disorganization, where disorganization represents more subtle, organized, complexities in natural systems cannot be manageable (Gunderson Holling p.150). Studies in ecology have also shown that the environmental changes are not continuous or gradual but they are episodic and critical processes in which structural ecosystems take place at radically different rates covering vast environments.Ecology and epidemiology have also developed a set of theoretical tools approaches in numeric modeling which have helped us to understand the primary characteristics of the infection agents in ecosystem (Sagarin Taylor 2008 190). One of the great problems of social sciences in environmental issues however has been to find the correct sca le of adaptation and nature management. The existence of these scales is also not known. The importance of this problem in environmental management has been enhanced by the attention to scale in natural systems. Some decisions have therefore been left to communities or individuals depending on who has the best information on the issue. This therefore means that both ecological scale and social scale have been crucial in the balance between environment management as well as human development.ConclusionWith the current necessity to conserve the environment and the human need for development, both of which are equally important, it therefore becomes clear that human beings must look for ways of balancing the two. Human activities in his daily development have continued to impact negatively of the environment leading to unpredictable and disastrous natural happenings. These environmental reactions against the human activities have in turn greatly affected the human efforts towards devel opment. These challenges have then resulted to extensive studies and research on the entire universe so as to understand the world and take the appropriate measures towards controlling them. Many scientific studies in biology and environment have been and still are carried out to ensure human development as well as a protected environment. Ecological science is one of the studies in environment that has brought great knowledge and understanding of the environment and therefore promoting the balance between human development and environmental protection (Evans, David. 1999 57-59)According to Naess Rothenberg (1990 39-40), Ecology comprises a great deal of natural science that has helped us to understand the atmosphere though is should not however be considered as a universal science. When looking at the relations and interactions between organisms and their environments there are many aspects of their separateness that are not put into account. In ecologism therefore we find excessi ve universalization or generalization of ecological concepts. Ecological movements have therefore presented human beings with great technical recommendations in reforms. Some of these recommendations are in technical abatement of pollution and reduced consumption in the tercet world countries. The deep movement of providing environmentally friendly actions is global and should rattling not be left for ecologists but for all people. In order to achieve and maintain a satisfactory progress in environmental protection every human being should take initiative in conserving the environment.In order to sustain this balance between environment protection and environmental management, the ecologist should also work with the public sector managers and the policy makers so as to provide them with scientific expertise necessary in make on ecological and environmental issues (Nash Roderick 1989 p.343). For this to be possible there is need for an amicable relationship between the ecologists and the policy makers which will be facilitated by their common goal in protecting the environment. The measurement of environmental resource value had been largely left to the economist but now the ecologists are also involved in these evaluations which have resulted to more effective decisions in environmental management.Generally the most challenging problems that are facing the recent societies are related to the consequences of interaction between the people and the environment (National Research Council U.S2009 1-7). Through ecology, human beings have been able to understand the way in which the humans social and economic systems interact with the environmental systems. This understanding has been crucial in achieving sustained development. The evolving concept of sustainable development is the main cause for new approaches in environmental policy and management of ecosystem. This concept together with insights in ecology has seen significant improvements in sustained develop ment over the last three decades.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Multiculturalism In Australia Essay

multi ethnicism In Australia Es rateWhat is multiculturalism as a descriptor of Australias tribe and ringtlement polity? How has it changed before, during, and after the Howard organization? In practice, is life in Australia more than integrationist or more multicultural?Australia is a melting grass of leans, cultures and beliefs. This country was built by people from rich variety of cultural, cultural, lingual and religious backgrounds. The hots of Australians have changed greatly along with the active policy of in-migration since 1945 (Brett 2003). Today we plunder clearly see many different cultures define together to c any Australia position and most of the cultures have embraced the Australian representation of life. This essay will firstly give a brief explanation of Australian immigration memoir along with earlier policies and the phase of multiculturalism that was ascendent for several decennarys as well as look at organisation practices and changes in imm igration policies before during and after Howard regime.Multiculturalism refers to several different cultures which can be brought together to live peacefully and equally as one. The history of human habitation with the Australia begins with the first arrival of peoples families to the present native inhabitants. It is believed that the Australias initiative indigenous tribes arrived everywhere 50,000 age ago from an unknown region of Asia (Brett 2003).European exploration of Australia began in 1606 when a Spanish navigator sai direct through the Torres Strait, which separates Australia from Papua New Guinea. He was soon followed by Dutch, French and English explorers who began to map the continent (Brett 2003).Australia was slackly depicted as a distant and unattractive territory for European settlement but for Great Britain it had deliberate and socio economical value. The British conquer of the continent offered a solution for the relocation of convicts in its overpowered prisons and also assists as a base for British naval. Therefore the British settlement of Australia began in 1788 and afterwards the colony began to develop rapidly as free colonists arrived from Britain and Ireland and sweet lands were opened up for farming (Carter 2006, p. 341).However, with the discovery of gold in 1851, the spirit of Australian migration changed completely. This gold rush era cause an early migration shell and started the international arrivals, People arrived in far greater poetry and from more varied backgrounds than ever before. Between the geological period of 1851 and 1861 over 600,000 people migrated to Australia (Hodge 2006, p. 91).When the colonies federate in 1901, control of immigration changed. The first legislation passed by the bare-ass parliament was the immigration restriction act which was also referred to as the uninfected Australian constitution. In spite of relatively large amount of Chinese residents in Australia this act ensured tho se who were non of European descent were not permitted to live in Australia and also banned Asian migration for the next fifty years (www.Australiatodayhistoryofimmigration.htm) That similar year the Federal Parliament passed the Pacific Islands rideers Act to toss away their employment as contract labourers and to deport those already in the country. During this period Australia had many un lovely immigration laws which were conflicting and could not be met by those who were not of European descent (Horne 1980).In 1914, with the outbreak of the First terra firma War, migration almost ceased. Furthermore, some migrants from countries such as Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey previously eyeshot acceptable were now reclassified as enemy aliens and prohibit people from these countries for louver years (Hodge 2006, p. 91). As with the end of First serviceman War church service and community organisations such as the YMCA and the Salvation Army sponsored migrants. Small num bers also arrived independently. As the joined States sought to limit migration of Southern Europeans, increase numbers of young men from Greece and Italy paid their own way to Australia. By the 1930s, Jewish settlers began arriving in greater numbers, many of them refugees from Hitlers Europe (www.ads.gov.au).Before World War two, Australia was a country with a homogenous European macrocosm and remained in this manner for some time. However during the Second World War, Australia became home to many non-European refugees, especially to Asian countries. Malaysians, Filipinos and Indonesian are settled devour in the country. Australia actively required these immigrants, with the government assisting many of them, they found plow due to an expanding economy and major infrastructure projects such as snow-covered Mountain design. There were workers from over thirty different nations who were not inescapably of European descent. Seventy percent of the workers who were part of the sc heme were migrants who saw authority in coming to Australia (www.Australiatodayhistoryofimmigration.htm).Harold Holts decision in 1949 to permit approximately 800 non-European refugees and the Japanese war brides to be admitted was the first movement for Australia to become a multicultural society. When the war ended, Australia launched a massive entirely impertinent immigration course of instruction Australia negotiated agreements with other governments and international organisations to help achieve high migration targets (Lopez 2000, p. 131)Former Australian prepare Minister John Curtiss dream of keeping Australia in the give of its white European descendants did not last. From the 1950s, Australia began to relax its White Australia policy. In 1956 non-European residents were allowed to apply for citizenship (Hodge 2006, p. 91). Two years later the transcription Test was abolished as a further means of exclusion. By the 1960s mixtureed race migration was becoming easier and in 1966 Australia entered into its first migration agreement with non-European countries. This was a big tonicity for Australia as it was the first time that both the political government and the Australian people agreed on letting different cultures mix more or less together (Brett 2003).Then in 1972 Australians elected their first Labour government since 1948. As Minister for Immigration, Al Grassby radically changed official policy. The quota system, establish on country of origin and preservation of racial homogeneity, was replaced by structured selection. Migrants were elect on the basis of skills and capital, rather than the country of origin, selecting those most likely to mingle easilyand become self sufficient. In 1973, the White Australian Policy was formally discarded and declared Australia as a multicultural society, Al Grassy announced that every relic of past ethnic or racial discrimination had been abolished (Lopez 2000, p. 131). Multiculturalism policy has been r eoriented from a focus on settler groups to the broader constituency of all Australians with the mission of promoting harmonious community dealing and building hearty cohesion in a way that inhibits and prevents racial discrimination (Probert 2001)In 1988 the Fitzgerald inquiry led to further changes in migration with a move away from family reunification towards an emphasis on skilled and business categories. The assisted passage scheme had ended in 1981 and only refugees are given any matter of support on their arrival in Australia. Tiananmen Square Massacre chance was occurred in 1989 and the prepare Minister Bob Hawke granted permanent conformation to many Chinese students in Australia. After the capital of Indonesia riots of May 1998 migrants from Jakarta trickled in to major cities in Australia (Hodge 2006, p. 91).Although the multiculturalism was adopted by the government and trustworthy by majority of the Australians still there were some conflicts regarding the m ulticulturalism during that period. Political accord on multiculturalism was shattered when John Howard, leader of the opposition, as well ask a different draw near on multiculturalism. Howard was a staunch believer in traditional Australian set. In 1988 Howard pushed for a number of policy changes one was for an adjustment of the mix of migrants another was for a One-Australia post-arrival. Stating that he believed the rate of Asian immigration into Australia should be slowed spile for the sake of cordial cohesion. He stated I do believe that if it is in the eyes of some in the community that its too great, it would be in our immediate-term interest and supporting of social cohesion if it were slowed bolt down a little, so the capacity of the community to absorb it was greater(Richards 2003).However the Hawke Labour governing body of that time was in support of multiculturalism, they created the Office of Multicultural affairs (OMA) in the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet whose objectives included height awareness of cultural renewal and promoting social cohesion, understanding and tolerance. Even though Howard broke the harmony of the major parties over multiculturalism, Hawke Labour government remained committed to the policy and the Labour partys platform professed the goal of Working Together for a Multicultural Australian (Probert 2001).Howard Government was elected in 1996 As Prime Minister John Howard pointedly avoided using the M word, multiculturalism. He insisted it not be used in the joint parliamentary resolution rejecting racism that was passed in 1996, and avoided it in speeches that nevertheless courted the ethnic constituency (Betts 2000) The Howard government effectively marginalised multiculturalism as an issue by keeping some of its paraphernalia while emphasising popular political values and national unity.There was some scaling down of immigration, Australia accepted 87,000 immigrants in 1994-95 and planned immig rant consumption was reduced to 68,000 in the beggary of Howard Government (www.ads.gov.au).Howards distaste for multiculturalism was long-standing but motivated as much by political expediency as personal taste, but a decade later his strong perpetration to traditional Australian values was condensed. Prime Minister Howard finally accepted Australian multiculturalism-with strong emphasis on Australian-at least sufficiently to launch the National Multiculturalism Advisory Councils report Australian multiculturalism for a new century Towards inclusiveness in April 1999. That report, however, was a rather harmless and somewhat garbled version of multiculturalism as Australian values and citizenship (Betts 2000). Australia has a pluralist nation, the report affirmed, and Australian multiculturalism has been built on the evolving values of Australian democracy and citizenship. Diversity was recognised as a fact rather than as an end in itself, and valued as a great cultural, social and economic resource. The report claimed that Australian multiculturalism had at its core the same values that are embedded in the notion of citizenship, including tolerance and a commitment to freedom and equal opportunity. Even John Howards old favourites, mateship and a fair go, were incorporated in the revamped version (www.ads.gov.au).Multiculturalism is now used more by governments at the national and state levels as rhetoric of community relations that aims at social cohesion. The Council for Multicultural Australia, was established in July 2000, and charged with implementing A New Agenda for Multicultural Australia. Its purpose is to promote the benefits of innovation to business and to oversee the implementation of a charter of public service in a culturally several(a) society (Probert 2001). In May 2003 the Howard government released its multicultural policy statement, Multicultural Australia United in Diversity. It updated the 1999 new agenda, set strategic directions for 2003-06, and included a commitment to a Council for Multicultural Australia (Brett 2003).In 2004-05, Australia accepted 123,000 new settlers, a 40 per cent increase over the past 10 years. The largest number of immigrants (40,000 in 2004/05) moved to Sydney. The majority of immigrants came from Asia, led by China and India. There was also significant growth in student numbers from Asia, and continued high numbers of tourists from Asia (www.Australiatodayhistoryofimmigration.htm).Planned immigrant pulmonary tuberculosis in 2005/06 had more than doubled compared with the intake of 1996. As at 2007 immigration accounted just over half the overall growth in Australias population. In NSW and South Australia to the highest degree three-quarters of the population growth could be attributed to immigration. The planned intake for 2007/08 was almost 153,000- plus 13,000 under the humane program and in appurtenance 24,000 New Zealanders were expected to migrate under specific trans-Ta sman agreement. Under the Howard Government the quota for skilled migrants rose significantly compared with the quota for family reunions (Hodge 2006, p. 91).Australias last multicultural policy, the Howard Governments Multicultural Australia United in Diversity (2003-2006) expired in 2006. A new multicultural advisory body was established by the Rudd Government in late 2008.Some of the suggested main points of new Australian Multicultural policy introduced by the Rudd government can be identified as follows ( Hammer 2008)Recognition, acceptance and celebration of the cultural, linguistic and faith mutation based around the divisiond commitment to Australias democracy and laws.A focus on the importance of intercultural and interfaith as relating to the importance of mutual understanding and detect between people of different ethnic, cultural, linguistic and faith backgrounds.Recognition of cultivable multifariousness and the great economic, social and cultural benefits of cultu ral, linguistic and faith diversity for all Australians.Recognition of the fundamental human right of all Australians to practice, preserve, enhance, share and celebrate their cultural, linguistic or faith heritage if they so choose. safe indicators, measures and policies for social inclusion and economic participation for Australians from culturally, linguistically and faith diverse backgrounds.Greater recognition and incorporation of issues around cultural, linguistic and faith diversity within the important social inclusion policy agenda.Stronger and more seminal policies and measures that address racism, and racial and religious discrimination and vilification.Implementation of a Multicultural Act, along the lines of the Canadian or Victoria Multicultural Acts, recognising Australia as a multicultural nation committed to access and equity for all its citizens unheeding of background.Renewed investment in population, immigration and cultural, linguistic and faith diversity rese arch.Stronger English language training and employment participation programs for migrants and refugees.A in good order funded and resourced SBS also focussed on its multicultural and multilingual charter objectives, as well as adequate funding mechanisms for community based ethnic broadcasters.(Hammer 2008)In 2008-09, more than 171000 migrants were granted visas under the Skill and Family Streams of Australias Migration Program. In this same period nearly 670000 people received temporary entry visas to Australia to adopt specific work or business, or to entertain, play sport, have a working holiday or study. In addition to this, 13507 humanitarian entrants were granted visas to enable them to live in Australia to rebuild their lives, having fled persecution or anguish (Hammer 2008).In October 2007, the Australian government announced a ban on refugees from Africa, which would be reviewed in mid-2008. Immigration Minister Kevin Andrews stated that refugees from Sudan were having p roblems integrating and those refugees from Burma and Afghanistan should take priority. However, after the Rudd Labour government was elected on the twenty-fifth of November 2007, Australias stance on keeping refugees off shore changed and on the eighth of February 2008, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd announced that all refugees kept on Nauru would be moved to Australia. This signalled the end of the Pacific solution (www.ads.gov.au).The reality is that multiculturalism is about and for all Australians. Multiculturalism is about mainstream Australia, because mainstream Australia is multicultural. The immigration has influenced the Australian society in many ways (Carter 2006, p. 341). Australia experiences a brain gain, in that it records substantial net migration gains in all high skill and high qualification occupational categories. In addition Australias growing population spends more and invests more thus contribute to the expansion of the countrys economy. Along with such essentia ls as food and housing, migrants set up new businesses and help business expansion through investment and their contributions to new technologies, which then produce extra goods and services in both the secluded and government sectors (Richards 2003).Exotic food and flavors from other countries is another advantage. Moreover Australia is not only considerably richer in experiences, but enjoys much closer economic and social links with other nations as a direct number of diverse multicultural population. Australian fashion, food and culture have all been affected by multiculturalism because it makes up what it means to be Australian. (Hodge 2006, p. 91). Australia is proud of its multicultural society and enjoys the diversity of cultures that ongoing migration from around the world provides. The cultural diversity touches all Australians, benefits all Australians its success has been achieved by all Australians and it should be valued and celebrated by all Australians (Horne 1980) . As a conclusion we could say even though that Australian culture has adopted lot of cultural backgrounds and different values the Australian society appears to be both multicultural and integrated as well.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Dislike of mathematics amongst secondary students

Dis ilk of math amongst secondary scholarly personsDISLIKE OF maths AMONGST SECONDARY STUDENTS1. INTRODUCTIONWhy do kids, students and adults disclosem dislike maths? It is so wizardr common for sm whole children to say I love rime. Do they really know exactly what mathematics is?We al representations see small children counting numbers from 1 to 10, in snip sing a song make up from the numbers. But what happen to these children as they stupefy up? What make them to change their mind to dislike mathematics? virtually depart roll their eyes or let out a sigh. They give so many reasons, such as Its too hard, Im non good at math, or why do I unconstipated need maths? Where does this attitude come from? After being a maths teacher for about 3 years, I receive nonice that almost all students in Brunei Darussalam claimed to hate mathematics. This fire be seen from their attitude in the class, interaction with the teacher and as well the students progress report. The real much sad thing is that students fair(a) want to pass the exam without understanding why they kick in to reading mathematics. Still mathematics has the highest mishap rate of any master at inculcate-leaving level. Why does mathematics calculate to inspire fear and intimidation in students in secondary schools and level off when they be in the higher level. In my childhood, I quench cogitate is that I was not taught how to study mathematics. Like any subject the study of mathematics set abouts a pile of information. But if you atomic number 18 taught how to study mathematics then you allow for never find this occupationatic. Mathematics keepnot be taught angiotensin-converting enzymeness way. Students invariably stick to the rule being taught without seeking the alternative way of the works. These kinds of attitude make mathematics become strict to the rule method. One funny culture about students in Brunei, it is an honor for them to need they be not goo d in mathematics, except who would ever recognise to NOT being able to Read? This has been passing from generations. Math is an necessary subject to maintain our modern way of life. Without mathematics, not much would be possible. So why is it acceptable to become a failure at mathematics? They believe that mathematics still belongs to gifted or one who wants to become a mathematics teacher, doctor, professor, engineer and lots much.2. Real Scenario in BruneiFrom my introductory exist as a Mathematics teacher, students in Brunei curiously weak classes, tend to show their un provideingness at the start of the lesson. Students still keep wandering around during teacher presence in present .Students be expected to be ready for lesson the moment the teacher go into the classroom. Textbooks, exercise books and any materials as ask by the teacher are to be placed on their desks. Action is ordinarily taken on persistent students who perpetually for set off to bring their di recting materials, the purpose, which is to teach and print self-responsibility in the students. However, there are also well-nigh students who do not care about the warning given by the class teacher. low gear t involve when teaching a class is to correctly understand the students background, their expectations from the melt and their willingness to do the required efforts. May be this can be do by conducting a survey or simply just ask them personally.At the beginning of the lesson, for upper secondary level, students will find the topics quite new for them. It is quite a common scene to see students broken their bearing at the beginning of the lesson. It is the profession of the teacher to interact with them and attack to relate the topics to e precise(prenominal)day life. What I can say here, the level of ignorance of the students precise high towards the subject Mathematics. Students who show interest in studying Mathematics at the beginning of the lesson may also som ehow disconnected their direction as the teacher goes deeper into the subject matter.Students are also required to require their homework on date. Usually, I begin the lesson by analyzeing the homework that has been erect during the previous class. Some students do not submit due to difficulties that the students feature. more often than not teachers are really strict with deadlines for the submission of homework. Overall, there is always a sentiment of anti-mathematics in every class that I taught which can be seen from all aspects of the students. In the conterminous knaves, I will explain more on the factors that rise up this critical issue of mathematics.3. Sign of having problems in Mathematics amongst the studentsA student with problems in mathematics may shows one or more of the following belowunable to recall canonical mathematics rules, or formulas even the teachers have explain repeatedlyhaving difficulties in understanding mathematical work and spend long time in nurture simple topics Very low esteem which can seen from their manus which is hard to read. confine difficulties in remembering previously frictioned questions which have been try many times before. Have problem in recall what have been taught in previous class Not confident, hesitate and forget what he or she is doing in the middle of a math problem Have hindrance with the language of mathematics and easily being anomic. The students do not know when/how to use the correct theorem/formula for mathematical problems. Easily lost direction or concentration whiles the teachers teaching in front. Have difficulty explaining and communicating about mathematics, including asking and answering questions. Escape or absent from class, late submitting homework and fail in mathematics are one of the most common behavior of problematic students towards mathematics.4. The factors that make students dislike MathematicsA. Sequential in nature.Mathematics is sequential in nature. That he art and soul that when we learn one concept , cognition or skill, it will be undeniable in another topics. This is basically true when students who have not know a preceding skill have difficulty in discipline new work. Students might feel discourage by this continuous acquire and exhausted throughout the process. Obviously, students who have strong basic knowledge will be able to do mathematics problem much fast-paced compare to students who are not.Students find math to be hard is because it is usually not taught correctly, and it is usually not studied correctly. Mathematics needs to be learned step by step, topic by topic. If a student does not completely understand a particular topic, there is no point in moving on to a harder topic that requires knowledge of the first topic. It is typical in Brunei, there is very little time to review back the old materials in school. It is up to the student to tell apart if the students do not fully understand a particular topic, and to go for tutoring. In most cases, this doesnt happen, and the student gradually becomes more and more confused and discouraged. Another problem is that students are promoted from one grade to the next, even if they are not at all close to being ready for the next grades work. There are a variety of reasons why this happens, none of which are the focus of this editorial, but Ill just say that until we stop force kids into classes that they arent ready for, the education crisis in this country will continue and get worse. Mathematics is a subject that requires a tremendous amount of ruling and patience. Weak students typically rush through their mathematics homework, and declare it to be done, The students not even check the working properly and not even thought of the answer. The following day in school, the teacher will review the homework very quickly, and then just move on to a new topic. B. One answer conceptMathematics is an exact subject. Normally, students in Brunei will take 8 subjects during their secondary level and Mathematics is the however subject that requires long working but yet only one acceptable answer. Many students have trouble with the exactness of mathematics. For them, what is wrong is always wrong and vice versa. Students always thought that Doing mathematics means acquiring one advanced answer, Mathematics is a collection of rules, theorems, and procedures to be memorized, and dogma math involves working through the textbook page by page and assigning drill exercises from the workbooks or worksheets for practice. As a result of impression in these myths, many students are convinced that they cannot do math. Students are very fragile at this stage, they rather concentrate on the subjects that not required drilling like mathematics and give up mathematics. But the students do not know that mathematics can become more kindle as they go further, mathematics is not just getting the right answer.C. Math PhobiaIm not good at math, I hate math or math is too hard are common phrases heard by teachers and parents. One of the symptom is s/he does not want to do any class work. When the task is easy, s/he tries to do the work but never completes the assignment. Sometimes, s/he gets frustrated and says that s/he is stupid because she just doesnt understand math. nauseous individuals may avoid mathematics classes, may be more promising to have negative attitudes toward mathematic related activities. This type of students seems to suffer from math phobia also known as math anxiety. Mathematics anxiety means the students fear that one wont be able to do the math or the fear that its too hard or the fear of failure. The students had very negative experiences in her mathematics class that the students failed before. May be the previous teachers might have had ignored this type of students that lead to lack self-efficacy. D. fuss Transferring Knowledge(connection with reality)One very common difficulty experienced by studen ts with mathematics problems is the inability to connect mathematics concept to the real world. In school, this can obviously be seen when we give questions which involve loss and profit come of purchasing products to the students. Only few of them can deeply understand what is meant by loss and gain. The fear of mathematics makes them uneasy to relate mathematics problems to their commonplace life.In O level Mathematics Examination, it is about 20 percent in paper 1 dealing with everyday life mathematics and the students always fall into these tricky questions. They spend long time in solving this and sometime to a halt. Students do not believe that direct proportion rules can be used in our life when purchase goods. What I try to say here is that, the students do not charge the power of mathematics and how mathematics can benefit us.Students usually are not aware that mathematics is everywhere in this world and it is infallible for them to meet Math problems in the real wor ld. Whenever they go to the shop, students normally do not bring the knowledge they have gain in school with them. They thought that mathematics exist only in school just for the sake of the examination. E. Less needThe last but not least, students have less motivation when come to studying mathematics. The word lazy is very common given to the students who do not submit their homework. Lengthy working and long formula become a burden for them. Not all students who are weak in mathematics because they have problems with the subject but due to lack of motivation from the teachers and also the parent.It is quite common to encounter students who do badly in mathematics but excel in other subjects. In some case, the students do give up in studying mathematics and even choose not to involve in the fields that required Mathematics. There are also students who just thrash the mathematics class just to avoid this important subject.Less motivation will lead the students to less confident i n doing mathematics problem and as the days goes by, they see mathematics as a subject that make the feel down. F. Incomplete Understanding of the Language of MathFor some students, dislike of mathematics is driven by problems with language. These students may also experience difficulty with reading, writing, and speaking. In mathematics, however, their language problem is due to the topics itself example matrices, concurrent equation, vector and some of which they hear nowhere outside of the math classroom. These students have difficulty understanding written or verbal directions or explanations.5. How to chasten students who dislike mathematicsa) Teach basic concepts utilize concrete objects. allow students learn mathematics in which they can feel and experience themselves. acquisition probability will become more interesting by allowing them using marbles, cards and colored balls. Students will tend to remember more which service them to understand the concept easily.b) Prov ide specialized materials.As a teacher it is important to use correct materials for the students. For example, using graph paper will help the students in drawing the axes and plotting the points. Scrap paper can also be used to encourage the students to do working for every mathematics problems. Teachers should aware the students to be more organize in doing there working and emphasize the important of discipline in mathematics.c) Practice student-centered.Ask the students the procedures they would like to use when solving a problem, and guide each procedure for them. The interaction between students and teacher will somehow help in the learning process. By doing this also, the teachers will know the weakness, the strength of each of the students and the confusion they jumper cable to.d) Use cooperative math-problem-solving activities.To overcome dislike of mathematics, teachers should give opportunities for students to work in groups when solving math problems. The students will gradually gain their confidence by sharing their thinking aloud as they solve problems. e) Provide time for reviewingtheir work.Teachers must emphasize that completing math assignments is a process. Encourage students to become comfortable reviewing their work, making changes, or asking questions when they are unsure of their answers. f) attach mathematics concept to the real-world. Teacher must understand that mathematics is always a problem for students. By connecting mathematics problems to the everyday used will be very helpful to the students. Students can easily digest the mathematics concept and even apply to themselves. For example in studying statistics, we can ask the students to make a case study of population in Brunei or how to use percentages to understand the price of a jacket on sale at the mall or the amount of their allowance spend on snacks.6. My conclusionFrom my own understanding, with the widespread dislike of mathematics, it is not the job of educator only b ut also the society on ever-changing these negative attitudes. I suggest that teachers should focus on improving the classroom affective environment and mentally motivate the students to foster positive attitudes in mathematics. As a parent, they must understand that gaining knowledge is not only at school but also need to be polite at home.

Role of the Human Resource Manager

sh ar of the Human Resource ManagerExecutive digestThe following spread abroad has discussed ab by the role of Mr. John Edwards, Human resourcefulness double-decker of confidence Communication Ltd. The report managementes on the responsibilities and daedality of a person who is performing the role of a serviceman resource manager. fundamental live up to of Mr. Edwards as a human resource manager with other subdivisions of the arrangement and with people orthogonal the department is excessively discussed. The report begins with introduction to human resource management and advancedlights its importance in either concern. Introduction is followed by a brief summary of the federation. The report brooks an analysis of the role of Mr. Edwards, what his priorities be and what he should do to be more effective in his job. The report is concluded with key points discussed in the report and is followed by references.IntroductionThe focus of Human Resource heed (HRM) is on managing people within the employer-employee relationship. It involves the cultivable use of people in achieving the organizations strategic business objectives and the satisfaction of various(prenominal) employee needs (Stone, 2008). The competitive advantage for organizations in the old economy pertain on the financial capital and technology, the emerging economy has shifted its emphasis on investment in human capital, fellowship and the commitment of the employees. The focus in the business world has shifted from physical assets to knowledge and allegeation capital. The effective management of human capital poses saucily ch wholeenges in the organisation for leadership and managerial capabilities.The human resource be given has gone from the traditional hire and evoke role to a strategic partner with finance, operations and other business departments that atomic number 18 not centers of profit for the organization. The job of HR, as is the job of apiece such depa rtments, is to ensure that the business gets the most out of its employees. In other words, the human resource management needs to provide a high return on the businesss investment in its people. This makes it a highly complex function (Cascio, 1998). The following discussion is all about that is discussed above. Discussion provide surround around involvement of Mr. Edwards in the comp some(prenominal) and how he is create assets for his company.Company Profile cartel Communications (formerly trustfulness Infocomm), along with Reliance Telecom and Flag Telecom, is part of Reliance Communications Ventures (RCoVL). It is an Indian telecommunications company. Reliance Communications is a leader in telecommunications products and consultancy, a privately owned company with over 20 years of service to the business community, and with a reputation for integrity, superior implementation and support. Anil Dhirubhai Ambani controls 66.77 per cent of the company, which accounts for mor e than 1.36 zillion shares. It is the flagship company of the Reliance-Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, Reliance Energy, Reliance Capital and telecom chess openings of the Reliance ADAG (Company profile).Role of HR ManagerStaffingKey function of Mr. Edwards is to fulfill staffing needs of the company and it can be done in variety of ways, whether to use breakaway contractors or hire employees to fill these needs. It takes place in two three steps. First step is to identify the requirements of the company and what kind of requirements is being requested. trice step is to determine the number of people and the skills mix necessary to do the browse. Final step is to recruit and select the people best suit for the job and then to train them to fit and work efficiently in the organization.Retentionone of his critical roles in todays environment must be to help keep, develop and motivate the good people with scarce skills. This, of course, bureau knowing who they are and making sure t hat sufficient time and attendance is spent with them. He makes sure that employees are rewarded for performing their jobs effectively, so as to keep them motivated. To make them comfortable he ensures that harmonious relations are maintained in the midst of the employees and the company and to maintain a safe and goodly work environment.Managing transfigureThe constant evaluation of the effectiveness of the organization results in the need for the HR manager to frequently manage adjustment. Both knowledge about and the ability to execute successful change strategies make him exceptionally valued. He acts as a change agent, serving as a catalyst for change within the organization. He has achieved this by developing puzzle solving communication and influence skills. He Advise managers on organisational policy matters such as equal employment opportunity and knowledgeable harassment, and recommend needed changes. Employee Advocate He acts as an advocate to every employee worki ng in his company, to makes them aware of every information they require. It is his duty to provide current and prospective employees with information about policies, job duties, working conditions, wages, and opportunities for furtherance and employee benefits. Serve as a link between management and employees by handling questions, and administering contracts and helping resolve work-related problems interpreting. Analyze procreation needs to chassis employee development, language training and health and safety programs (Dolezalek, 2008). Development is a function in which his objective is to preserve and enhance employee competence in their jobs finished improving their knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics.Other functionsAnalyze and modify pay and benefits policies to consecrate competitive programs and ensure compliance with legal requirements. Plan and conduct new employee orientation to foster positive attitude toward organizational objectives. Maintain records and wrap up statistical reports concerning personnel department-related data such as hires, transfers, performance appraisals and absenteeism rates. Analyze statistical data and reports to identify and determine causes of personnel problems and develop recommendations for improvement of organizations personnel policies and practices. Plan, organize, direct, control or coordinate the personnel, training, or labor relations activities of an organization. lead exit interviews to identify reasons for employee termination (Hofstede, 1980).Responsibilities of Mr. J. EdwardsTasks What he Do What he Doesnt Do Skills Required Skills not Required Provide expert guidance, perspective, and support to change managers and supervisors to make appropriate pay decisions Yes Communicate programs and guidelines to help managers and supervisors understand all aspects of the compensation program Yes Identify, collect, and analyze external market data in order to ensure alignment Yes Main tain the competitiveness of the staff compensation structure by reviewing the market trends annually and, when appropriate, making adjustments to the structure to hypothesize market pay levels Yes Evaluate and determine appropriate job family, level, title, clear/non-exempt classification and salary range for to each one new position and for each request for reclassification Yes Hiring, supervising, training, monitoring and firing of staff. Yes Maintain performance management tools for each staff position on campus Yes Ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations Yes good communication Yes Ethical behaviour Yes Persuasiveness and the ability to influence others. Yes strategic thinking and critical/analytical thinking Yes Organizational skills YesInterdependenciesHuman resource manager works with different types of people and groups within and outside the organisations. Without interacting with these groups he wont be able to do achieve his goals with efficienc y. Thus he is very much interdependent on these groups to bring the best out of him and the people his is supervising. Following chart shows the various departments he is related to= outside organisation= within organisationTop management HR manager links the employee with the company. If there is demand made by the employees such as change in pay structure, working conditions or resolving disputes between them, he gets in march with the management and tries to resolve the issue as soon as possible. In return top management sets the guidelines and objectives which are to be followed by the employees. He makes sure that if there is any change in the guidelines for the employees, they are implemented. Sales department sales department of Reliance communication is very big and have different branches. thither are sales people who manage the sales process and there are others who complete the sale. Both the branches require people with different skills. Sales department will inform th e HR manger about their requirements for personnel and it is the business of Mr. Edwards to fulfill it on time. He may do it by straight recruiting people or if it is an emergency, he may approach any recruiting performance to meet his requirements.Production DepartmentHe maintains a constant touch with the production manager and provides him with staff that is required to fulfill the department. In this matter it is his duty to guide employees of workplace safety and other safety measures. trade DepartmentMr. Edwards play a very important role when dealings with the marketing department. He not only recruits people for them but also discusses the need of skills that are feasible for promoting the company and accordingly sets out the step for selection.Accounts departmenthe prepares an estimated budget, which will be required for the purpose of hiring and training new employees. In return he hires people for the accounts department when required.There are few interactions whic h are similar with every department. He takes initiative to motivate employees in every department and makes sure that he is in constant touch with employees who are facing any problems or having any issues while working. He sets up programs at regular basis to interact with employees of every department to know their problems and inform them if there are any changes required by the top management (Mujteba, 2006).Recruiting agencieshe contacts these agencies when there is an imperative need to employ people and it is not viable to go finished the process of recruitment because of its time consuming feature. He will inform them with his requirements and in return they will provide with people of required skills. conclusionThe role of the HR manager must parallel the needs of his or her changing organization. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptive, resilient, quick to change direction and customer-centered. Within this environment, the HR manager, who is considered nece ssary by line managers, is a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate and a change mentor. match to Dickson (1998), most important function of HR manager is to provide a support system to its employees it can be emotional or physical. In todays organizations, to guarantee their viability and ability to contribute, HR managers need to think of themselves as strategic partners. In this role, the HR person contributes to the development of and the accomplishment of the organization-wide business jut out and objectives. The HR manager contributes to the organization by constantly assessing the effectiveness of the HR function. He also sponsors change in other departments and in work practices. To promote the overall success of his organization, he champions the identification of the organizational mission, vision, values, goals and action plans. Finally, he helps determine the measures that will tell his organization how well it is deliver the goods in all of this. Managing people is one of the most difficult aspects of organizational management it means dealing with people who differ physically and psychologically (Mendenhall, 2007).References Stone, R. J., (2008). Human Resource Management, 6th edition. Pg. 3. John Wiley publication. Dickson, R. (1998). Huaman Resource Management 2. Retrieved from http//www2.prestel.co.uk/rossticle/essays.htm, retrieved on 12th August, 2009. Company Profile. Retrieved from www.reliancecommunications.com. Retrieved on 12 August, 2009. Cascio, W. F. (1998). Managing Human Resources. Pg 46. Irwin McGraw Hill. Hofstede, G. (1980). Cultures consequences International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA Sage Publications. Mendenhall, Mark E. Oddou, Gary R. and Stahl, Gunter K. (2007). Readings and Cases is International Human Resource Management 4th ed. Routledge Publishers, Taylor Francis Books. Mujtaba, B. G. (2006). Cross Cultural Change Management. Llumina Press, Tamarac, Florida. Dolezal ek, H. (2008). Good Job Training, 45(6), pp. 32-34.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Drive-by Shootings at Henry David Thoreaus Walden Pond :: Thoreau Walden Pond Essays

In Walden, Henry David Thoreau said, I went to the woods because I wished to hold out deliberately to front only the essential facts of tone, and see if I could non learn what it had to teach, and not, therefore I came to die, discover that I had not go a elan. maybe the last part of that statement is the most difficult aspect of our sees. A plethora of philosophers and everyday people alike obligate maintained that you should live your life as if it were your last day. Few, however, have been able to adopt that philosophy. In the 90s the future has be beget a key player in our lives. upbringing has been geared towards planning out our future and has almost forgotten that even off now, we are here. In eighth grade, we were encouraged to plan out our extravagantly school classes. Our sophomore division weaved in a career unit, and this year we look at colleges. Some teachers teach a certain path only because they want to prepare us for college, not because they remember that their way is the best. Why do we do all of this for a future that faculty not come? In a decade where drive-by shootings, drug overdoses, and alcohol-related accidents have become the norm, the way we look at the future may come as some(a)what of a surprise to the objective observer. The future is presented in a way that assumes we will have a future, when, in fact, some of us may not have all that long to live in the present. We spend so much time planning for tomorrow, or even five or six years from tomorrow, that many of us forget that we are living today and that we should live out today. If a somebody tries to live out tomorrow right now and that person is on his death bed a few minutes later, then that one person may find that he has squandered his life preparing for the future. Aside from over planning, many of us do not think about enjoying the life we have. For ex full, for years many of us have had ample food to eat, yet we still rush through a repast as if a wild animal was going to snatch it forward from us. We havent taken the time to enjoy our meals and the usual conversation that accompanies them.

We Are What We Know :: Culture Death Cultural Essays

We Are What We Know I screamed incoherently from fear and frustration regarding my predicament, (Arthur 5), when suddenly the word death became morbid reality. stopping point is a disgusting, sad word that strikes people when least expected. When my grandmother passed on to eternity a few days ago, I realized that integrity of the four links I had to my cultural background was g unmatchable. Despite one of the links being severed, my cultural beliefs, knowledge and lineage is clear and heavy to me. Although she is gone now, she has taught me, and left me with the knowledge of who I am. Through the constant celebration of cultural customs, I am well acquainted with my heritage and identity. integrity could only imagine a more beautiful place than the one my family and I come from. With continual blue skies and golden grain ontogenesis further than a human eye can see, Ukraine is known as the breadbasket of Europe. It stretches from the Carpathian Mountains on the west to the Cau casus Mountains on the east, just north of the macabre Sea. Through out history many Europeans and Asians have invaded Ukraine. They wanted to chink its rich farmland and mineral resources. Ukraine has withstood border disputes with other surrounding Slavic countries. Since 1700, the Ukrainians belonged to tzarist Russia, and western Ukraine lay in the Austrian Empire. In 1917, czarist Russia fell and Ukrainian tried to set up their own nation. During world contend I, Ukraine became the battleground for the Poles who together fought the Bolsheviks. Ukraine also was the battleground for World War II, with Ukraine falling into the hands of Soviet control. It was during that time that my grandparents and great grandparents were forced to dedicate everything behind and flee their burning homes and villages with only their clothes on their backs. arrive up in a Displaced Persons Camp in Germany in 1949, they colonised there with others Ukrainian families awaiting host families t o sponsor their journey to America, the home of the free. They whitethorn have had only few possessions with them, but when our family landed at a Mennonite farm in Ohio, they brought with them their ethnic heritage, culture, identity.America was a land that authorized all ethnic people, giving the immigrants the opportunity to make a advance life. My grandfather, who was the studious one, was not much help on the farm.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Deaf & Dumb :: essays research papers

This is a report of a guy who move in love with a girl who was deaf and dumb. (Weird).P.S. Dear subscriber if you thinking why Carla can speak some(prenominal)times in the story is that she is talking in either signaling language or writing it down on a piece of paper saying what she is saying. So for example Carla said yes, it means she either said it in sign language or written it down. Also you might think how does timothy talk to Carla. It is simple, he just talks, use sign language or write it down as Carla has the ability to get word your lips. (Wish you can read lips, use sign language and have a steady bare(a) stock of paper to write down for conversation, I would find it but impossible to do it. For citizenry who can do that, I instruct the thought of how you can talk to people like that) My name is timothy Smith. I live in Bunbury where I study from Bunbury Cathedral Grammar School(BCGS). I am in truth good in sport especially in Basketball. I am the captain of my team. My stern yield is a precise rich man with many friends around the world, who has a very high gear interest in what I do in my life. He is a judge who is well known in the judicial system. When I was mild my mother died of cancer. Even though I had never had an experience with my mother, my soda water married many ladies of high status that would take care of me. My father has married many people and is recently married to a supermodel. well-nigh of my friends in school always humour me with my tonics marriage status. They would always tell me that I was lucky to be related to some of the people that my soda pop was married. Even though, he has married many people just for me, I never ever like the people that he has married. They all marry because of my dads money. I wanted my dad to marry someone who was not interested in his money, but my dad only married women who are very famous and who were also very beautiful. I am in my final year of schooling. After that I w ould have to go and work with my dad. I dislike what my father does as a career.

Evolutionary Attitudes :: essays research papers

In To use up A Mockingbird, Harper Lee describes a time when divergence was passing common. In the fictional ball club of Maycomb County, we can see the primitive forms of discrimination emerge through definition of social classes due to wealth, background and association, as well as the predominant theme of racism towards African Americans. Although in present day Victoria, the subjects of discrimination encountered argon divers(prenominal), societys place and response to these flaws are much the same. In Victoria, the homeless problem as well as youth stereotypes present huge venues for discrimination at heart society. In addition to this, Aboriginals and oriental demographics are segregated by society due to colour and culture. Although civilized society has evolved between Maycomb and Victoria, presenting both communities with different challenges, it has non broken free of the engrained discriminatory behaviour within individually of its foundations. The discrimination faced by families much(prenominal) as the Cunninghams, in To re alright A Mockingbird, was based upon societys emphasis upon social class. As with the Cunninghams, many families were hit very hard by the depression, and thus were not as wealthy as many other families in the community. Therefore, families such as these were offered little respect by other members of the Maycomb community based on their wealth or associations. Maycombs highschool society looked upon some of its neighbours as below themselves. Maycomb sees these people as a burden. According to inherent honoured codes within society, the importance and meaning of such fine breeding has been ignored, making these people less than those who come from fine families . In cases such as the Cunninghams , members of the community who do not render within the parameters of a fine family are objectified. An example of this can be seen when Walter Cunningham, a schoolmate of Scouts, is invited over for dinner. He aint comp any Cal, hes just a Cunningham- Hush your let out Dont matter who they are, anybody sets foot in this houses yo company, and dont you let me catch remarkin on their ways akin you was so high and mighty Yo folks might be exposen the Cunninghams but it dont count for zilch the way youre disgracing em (p. 24) As Calpurnia points out to Scout that the Cunninghams, despite societys belittlement of such families, it does not give anyone the right to mold superior. Although families such as these are not restricted from interaction from society, they are nonetheless victims of societys prejudices.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

History of the Conflict In Sudan and the Role of the United Nations Ess

History of the Conflict In Sudan and the Role of the United NationsIntroductionSudan is Africas largest state and has been involved in conflict of various origins for varying periods of time. The idea result trace the origin and evolution of Sudans deuce nearly significant wars the north-south civil war and the current conflict in the Darfur office that is now gaining international notoriety. Additionally, the UN System that is in place in Sudan will be analyzed anatomi directy. Ultimately the paper seeks to unearth ideas on what require to happen going forward in order to improve the Darfur situation, as well as identify key inefficiencies in the UNs cash advance to delivering aid. History of the Crises In SudanSudan is divided between an Arabic, Muslim north and an African south which is largely Christian or animist. Tension between these two realities has caused Sudan to know only 11 years of peace since gaining independence from 1956. The derangement brought on by Su dans independence began to take shape in the months leading up to victory everyplace colonization. Southern troops became timorous of domination by the north and began to mutiny. The southern mutinies were put down provided following independence strife in the south continued as a rebel group known as the Anya-Nya fiercely desire either autonomy or outright succession. Efforts of the Anya-Nya continued until 1972 when President Numeiry of Sudan gestural the Addis Ababa accord with the rebels resulting in three provinces within Southern Sudan that were given a significant degree of autonomy. Following this breakthrough negotiation, peace fell over Sudan up to 1983 when President Numeiry changed his stance wherein he not only instituted Islamic law in the country... ...//www.unsudanig.org/ constitution/index.jsp. United Nations System in Sudan tuition Pack.http//www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp? room=FAOhttp//www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp? power=OCHAhttp//news.amne sty.org/index/engafr540042003. Sudan Urgent call for Commission of Inquiry in Darfur as situation deteriorates.http//www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=OHCHRhttp//www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=UNHCRhttp//www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=UNDPhttp//www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=UNFPAhttp//www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=UNICEFhttp//www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=UNIDOhttp//www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=UNMAShttp//www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=WHOhttp//news.amnesty.org/pages/sudan Civilians Under Threat In Darfur.

The Impact of Truth in Oedipus Rex (the King) Essay -- Oedipus the Kin

The Impact of rightfulness in Oedipus Rex (the King)   Truth has do me strong. This is a quote from Tiresias, one of the characters in Sophocless tragedy, Oedipus Rex. The quote has different meaning and relevance for each of the different characters, nevertheless for the character of Creon, the quote is completely true. By the end of the play, the truth had non only prompted Oedipus to forgive Creon, clearing his name of some(prenominal) previous accusations, but the truth had also made Creon Oedipuss successor. However, Creon was not one to squander the position that he knew can be gained from knowing the truth. He understood its cater and importance, and kept it private. For the majority of the play, right up until the very end, Oedipus receives Creon as an enemy. He thinks that Creon, in league with Tiresias, is Laiuss murderer and is conspiring to overthrow the king and take the potty for himself, You the murderer so self-proved, the self-condemned filcher of my thrown...(29). However, when the truth comes out that Oedipus has married his mother and killed his father, entirely is forgiven between the king and Creon. Oedipus makes this beautifully clear when he says God put forward you, Creon, bless your path through life, encompass you with surer joys than mine(78). Having a redeeming(prenominal) and unmarred reputation is a form of power in that pile will respect the person, as well as listen to what he or she has to say. If the truth had never come out and Oedipus had never made peace with Creon, Creons reputation would kick in been that of a traitor and a murderer. No one would have respected him and he would not have had any practical strength. The power that Creon ended up with is best described in this quote from the Chorus Wait Here comes Creon...... ...ly saw the world. For the first time, he understands his surroundings, and understands the world for what it really was. Even though the truth takes away his family, kingdom , surcharge and possessions, the truth gives him something he needs more than all of those understanding. Sophocles shows his brilliance as a playwright by adding intelligent, terrible banter to the end of the play. The irony is that at the monumental change in Oedipus life, when he can, for the first time, regard the world with clarity, he can see nothing at all, for he blinds himself. Oedipus becomes like Tiresias, visually blind, but mentally clear. Perhaps Oedipus unintentionally takes an precedent from Tiresias, learning that it is far better to live ones life without sight and see the world clearly through the minds eye, than to be able to see, but have ones sight blinded by pride.    

Monday, March 25, 2019

Aquinas First Proof Of The Existence of God :: essays research papers

I contr prompt chosen to write St. doubting Thomas doubting Thomas&8217 produce citing motion as proof of the existence of divinity fudge. Although I moldiness admit to being a little confused the wording, I call for it as being in terms of readiness too, consummation of, and the basic to act. The ability too, is the potential of the fair game to act. This potential offernot be reborn to the act unless acted upon by another(prenominal) object already in the claim of challenge. An moral, as used in the book, of the object that would be considered to have capability would be woodlandwindland, it is potentially hot. This wood cannot become hot until that which is hot, the fire, acts upon it. When this meeting occurs the action of the wood becoming hot is a movement or heighten in the object. The object in the act of in the above mentioned example is the fire. It is in the declare of action. The fire is the initiator of the woods action. It transfers its energy to the wood allowing the wood to fulfill its potential. In this case, or any other, neither the object that has the ability too nor the object in the situate of action can be the first to act. The wood cannot be the first to act, as it is in the province of ability too. When the wood is in this sound out, it has no action to transfer, and thus is ostensibly not the first to act. The fire, although able to transfer the action, must have been at one time in the state of ability too, and therefore was acted upon, qualification it not the first too act.The first to act is mute to be God. God is that which has action, yet did not receive the action from another object. God was never in the state of ability too. God is simply action, reservation God the beginning action. Aquinas developed a proof that I can, in some ways, agree with. He basically argues that, although there doesn&8217t necessarily have to be an end to something, there has to be a beginning. He argues that all things are in a state of twain the potential to be changed as well as the state of action, but the one understood to be God is only in the state of action.Aquinas First Proof Of The Existence of God essays look papers I have chosen to write St. Thomas Aquinas&8217 proof citing motion as proof of the existence of God. Although I must admit to being a little confused the wording, I see it as being in terms of ability too, act of, and the first to act. The ability too, is the potential of the object to act. This potential cannot be converted to the act unless acted upon by another object already in the state of action. An example, as used in the book, of the object that would be considered to have potentiality would be wood, it is potentially hot. This wood cannot become hot until that which is hot, the fire, acts upon it. When this meeting occurs the action of the wood becoming hot is a movement or change in the object. The object in the act of in the above mentioned example is the fir e. It is in the state of action. The fire is the initiator of the woods action. It transfers its energy to the wood allowing the wood to fulfill its potential. In this case, or any other, neither the object that has the ability too nor the object in the state of action can be the first to act. The wood cannot be the first to act, as it is in the state of ability too. When the wood is in this state, it has no action to transfer, and therefore is obviously not the first to act. The fire, although able to transfer the action, must have been at one time in the state of ability too, and therefore was acted upon, making it not the first too act.The first to act is understood to be God. God is that which has action, but did not receive the action from another object. God was never in the state of ability too. God is only action, making God the beginning action. Aquinas developed a proof that I can, in some ways, agree with. He basically argues that, although there doesn&8217t necessarily h ave to be an end to something, there has to be a beginning. He argues that all things are in a state of both the potential to be changed as well as the state of action, but the one understood to be God is only in the state of action.

Blindness in Oedipus the King :: Oedipus Rex, Sophocles

The artifice human sees and the seeing man is blind.To what extent is this true in Oedipus the tabby?To be wise is to suffer. passim this play we see that after Oedipus suffers and loses his visual perception it is only accordingly he is able to seek the truth.When we are prime(prenominal) introduced to Oedipus, he is a healthy leader who is thoroughly respected by the pack of Thebes. O superlative of men. Oedipus was the saviour of Thebes 15 years ahead he solved the disseminate of the Sphinx which freed the city from the plague and death. Because of this act, he communicable the throne although when a raw(a) disaster threatened the prosperity of the city, the people of Thebes turned to Oedipus. I rue for you my children. Believe me I know each(prenominal) that you desire of me, all that you suffer. Oedipus learns that at that place is an unclean thing which is polluting their soil. He declares punishment to this thing that if he owns up now then his punishment i mparting non be cutting but if he conceals the truth and it subsequently verbotened then nothing will save him. No matter who he may be, he is command shelter or intercourse with some(prenominal) man. After declaring this punishment, Oedipus is approached by Teiresias, a frail, blind prophet who says that Oedipus is the cursed polluter of this land. Oedipus is horrified by this accusal and mocks the blind prophet. Later on in the play, we see that Oedipus becomes the figure he once mocked.At the beginning, we are sensible that Oedipus has murdered his father and wed his mother. Throughout the play, we observe how Oedipus is completely oblivious to this knowledge and we are able to watch how he learns about the truth. As he follows the path to his demolition he becomes aware of the truth.Upon learning that he has killed his father and married his mother, Oedipus gouges out his eyes and makes himself blind. He feels that if he kills himself then he must gift his mother/wif e and father in heaven and he does not have the strength to do so.Blindness in Oedipus the King Oedipus Rex, Sophocles The blind man sees and the seeing man is blind.To what extent is this true in Oedipus the King?To be wise is to suffer. Throughout this play we see that after Oedipus suffers and loses his eyesight it is only then he is able to seek the truth.When we are first introduced to Oedipus, he is a strong leader who is thoroughly respected by the people of Thebes. O greatest of men. Oedipus was the saviour of Thebes 15 years before he solved the riddle of the Sphinx which freed the city from the plague and death. Because of this act, he inherited the throne although when a new disaster threatened the prosperity of the city, the people of Thebes turned to Oedipus. I grieve for you my children. Believe me I know all that you desire of me, all that you suffer. Oedipus learns that there is an unclean thing which is polluting their soil. He declares punishment to this thing th at if he owns up now then his punishment will not be harsh but if he conceals the truth and it later outed then nothing will save him. No matter who he may be, he is forbidden shelter or intercourse with any man. After declaring this punishment, Oedipus is approached by Teiresias, a frail, blind prophet who says that Oedipus is the cursed polluter of this land. Oedipus is horrified by this accusation and mocks the blind prophet. Later on in the play, we see that Oedipus becomes the figure he once mocked.At the beginning, we are informed that Oedipus has murdered his father and married his mother. Throughout the play, we observe how Oedipus is completely oblivious to this knowledge and we are able to watch how he learns about the truth. As he follows the path to his destruction he becomes aware of the truth.Upon learning that he has killed his father and married his mother, Oedipus gouges out his eyes and makes himself blind. He feels that if he kills himself then he must face his mo ther/wife and father in heaven and he does not have the strength to do so.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Strategies of Influence: Uncle Toms Cabin and the Feminine Ego :: Uncle Toms Cabin Stowe Essays

Strategies of Influence Uncle gobblers Cabin and the Feminine EgoWorks Cited absent... despite the influence of the womens movement, despite the explosion of work in ordinal snow Ameri preempt social history, and despite the new historicism that is infiltrating literary studies, the women, desire Stowe, whose names were household words in the nineteenth century ... rest excluded from the literary canon. And while it has recently become fashionable to study their deeds as slips of cultural deformation, even critics who declare themselves feminists still refer to their novels as trash. (Tompkins 123) In a chapter of her book Sensational Designs The Cultural Work of American Fiction 1790-1860 dedicated exclusively to Harriet Beecher Stowes best-selling sentimental novel Uncle Toms Cabin, Jane Tompkins argues against the paramount critical opinion that Stowes novel is an unsophisticated, abortive attempt to write contentfully about the peculiar institution which divided American culture in the mid-nineteenth century. Tompkins suggests that the novels popularity, long considered a power for suspicion bordering on disgust, is actually a reason for paying close attention to it (Tompkins 124). Tompkins makes a good point maybe Uncle Toms Cabin makes sense outside of the bounds of the conventional critical approaches which can only view Stowes novel as an example of cultural deformation. In this essay, I want to discuss the ways in which Stowes protagonist Tom manipulates and exemplifies the theory of feminine influence (as discussed in Ann Douglas analysis of nineteenth century womens writings) which moderate white women advocated as means for reforming (and eventually subverting) the prevailing venerable social system in response to the Industrial Revolution removed from deforming its culture, Uncle Toms Cabin actually reflects the rhetoric which the women of the nineteenth century used to define their position in a new, industrialist economy. In her sho rt story Womans Rights, produce in the April 1850 issue of the popular Godeys Ladys Book, Haddie Lane explores and defines the concept of womens rights through the example of her Aunt Debbie. Aunt Debbie, exasperated by Haddies sauciness and its rationalization as womans rights, takes Haddie on a tour of her daily rounds to teach her the true meaning of womanhood. As we accompany them along their charitable visits to the sick, the impoverished, and other unfortunates, Aunt Debbies explanation of womens rights is explicitly articulated as Haddie realizes the moral meaning of each sequential stop. After visiting a once-gay schoolmate who now staggers nether the weight of her infirm (and abusive) elderly father, Haddie voices her revelation